Environmental And Human Health Impacts Of Nanotechnology PdfBy Skatincipen In and pdf 25.01.2021 at 11:34 3 min read
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Part I: Precaution 1. Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety — introduction 2.
- Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research
- Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety
- Nanotechnology-Related Environment, Health, and Safety Research: Examining the National Strategy
Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research
Because of their small size— nano-meters or less—nanomaterials have unique physical properties that can influence their uptake, distribution, and behavior in the body. Indeed, some nano-particles have been shown to penetrate into cells, where they can trigger inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.
Canada and California recently took the unprecedented step of imposing mandated disclosure requirements on nanomaterial use and toxicity assessment. According to the new regulations, these entities must now reveal how much nanomaterial they use, how they use it, and what they know about its toxicity.
Under the new regulation, by February companies that manufacture, import, or export carbon nanotubes in California must disclose information about the toxicity and environmental impacts of their products. Meanwhile, experts in nanotoxicology and risk assessment have become increasingly polarized, represented on one side by the National Research Council NRC and on the other by the National Nanotechnology Initiative NNI , a government-wide collaboration coordinated by the National Science and Technology Council in the Executive Office of the President.
This document is meant to present the U. Clayton Teague directs the National Nano-technology Coordination Office, which was responsible for drafting the federal strategy. He says the strategy was developed in extensive consultation with regulatory agencies, research organizations, the business community, and nongovernmental organizations. But on 25 February , a panel assembled by the NRC issued its own report, describing what it calls serious shortcomings in the strategy document.
No case of human toxicity has been linked to the roughly 2, types of nano-materials in commercial use or development today. Predictions about nanotechnology risk have emerged from inhalation research, specifically studies targeting ultrafine soot particles with nanoscale dimensions. Upon inhalation, some of these particles traverse epithelial and endothelial cells to reach the blood and lymph circulation, which carries them to potentially sensitive sites, including the bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, heart, and central nervous system.
In vitro and animal studies show these particles can—depending on the dose and chemical composition—induce a range of inflammatory effects, whereas epidemiologic findings link them to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. All nanoparticles have high surface-to-mass ratios, which makes them uniquely reactive in the body. Engineered nanoparticles and soot differ in key ways, however. In particular, soot is heterogeneous in terms of particle size, chemistry, surface characteristics, and other constituents, whereas engineered nano-particles—within product categories—have uniformly identical shapes, including spheres, tubes, wires, rings, and planes.
But particle uniformity might also influence the kinetics and toxicity of nano-materials in unknown ways. For instance, Andrew Maynard, science advisor to The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, a collaboration of the Pew Charitable Trust and the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, proposes that some of the particles in soot and other heterogeneous mixtures could be more harmful than others.
The NRC panelists would like to see a national, health-based strategy for nanotech-nology research, with defined goals, milestones, and mechanisms for assessing progress.
Yet the NNI strategy document—NRC panelists claim—is simply a compendium of federally funded projects without any unifying vision or sense of shared purpose. Each of the projects listed by the NNI is grouped under one of five research categories: instrumentation, metrology, and analytical methods; nanomaterials and human health; nanomaterials and the environment; human and environmental exposure assessment; and risk management methods.
A prepublication copy of the NRC report was leaked to the press 10 December Although such errors were corrected in the final February release, the NRC did not change its overall conclusions. Of paramount importance, Wiesner says, is that exposure and toxicity research in nanotechnology be balanced appropriately. Exposure research in nanotechnology does come with unique challenges, Wiesner acknowledges. Scientists have yet to develop widely accepted methods for introducing nanomaterials into living systems such as cell cultures, for instance.
As nanomaterial surfaces interact with cell macromolecules and salts, their properties can change in mysterious ways. And those transformations, Wiesner says, directly influence interpretations of effective exposure and dose response. Indeed, many companies are reluctant to reveal their nanomaterial use and toxicity data voluntarily. With its Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program NMSP , launched 28 January , the EPA urges companies to report available information about the engineered nanoscale materials they manufacture, import, process, or use.
This voluntary two-year effort is intended to help inform eventual regulatory decisions about nanomaterials. According to Lux Research, the total number of companies engaged in nanotech production or use could reach 1, The EPA reached out to more than companies and 11 trade associations, Hwang says, but by the time the NMSP published its interim report on 12 January , only 29 companies had responded.
In total, these companies disclosed data on nanomaterial compounds. Sources interviewed for this article unanimously agreed that nanomaterials promise valuable benefits for society, among them better drugs; stronger, lighter products; and better environmental and energy technologies. But nanoparticle toxicity data need to be made more widely available to ensure public support for the technology. Jennifer Sass, a staff scientist with the Natural Resources Defense Council, says such data typically wind up in company reports instead of in publicly available, peer-reviewed research journals.
And Julia Moore, deputy director of The Project on Emerging Nanotechnology, claims the public has limited access to information about which companies use nanomaterials and how. Those on the industry side believe many interest groups have significantly overhyped the dangers of nanomaterials. He cites the comparison between carbon nanotubes and chrysotile asbestos as an example. He points out that, unlike asbestos, which for decades was mined at million-ton quantities by unprotected workers, carbon nanotubes are processed in laboratories subject to strict safety protocols.
Moreover, he says, the nanotubes themselves, once incorporated into products, have no bioavailability. But this argument does not address product end-of-life concerns, say many experts.
Once [a nano-enabled item] is thrown out and begins to decompose or degrade—or it begins to break down from day-to-day use—the particles can be released into the environment. Care needs to be taken to control the exposure throughout the product life cycle.
You can do a lot of in vitro testing at high doses and identify a hazard, but you need the necessary exposure for a risk to be present. Still, assuming the growth trends continue, nanomaterials will be produced at ever-increasing quantities, and public and environmental exposures will rise commensurately.
However, [the document] does not have the essential elements of a research strategy—it does not present a vision, contain a clear set of goals, have a plan of action for how the goals are to be achieved, or describe mechanisms to review and evaluate funded research and assess whether progress has been achieved in the context of what we know about the potential EHS risks posed by nanotechnology. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Toxicity Unknowns No case of human toxicity has been linked to the roughly 2, types of nano-materials in commercial use or development today. Looking for a Strategy The NRC panelists would like to see a national, health-based strategy for nanotech-nology research, with defined goals, milestones, and mechanisms for assessing progress.
Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety
Because of their small size— nano-meters or less—nanomaterials have unique physical properties that can influence their uptake, distribution, and behavior in the body. Indeed, some nano-particles have been shown to penetrate into cells, where they can trigger inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. Canada and California recently took the unprecedented step of imposing mandated disclosure requirements on nanomaterial use and toxicity assessment. According to the new regulations, these entities must now reveal how much nanomaterial they use, how they use it, and what they know about its toxicity. Under the new regulation, by February companies that manufacture, import, or export carbon nanotubes in California must disclose information about the toxicity and environmental impacts of their products.
Nanotechnology in Construction 3 pp Cite as. Nanomaterials and nanocomposites with unique physical and chemical properties are increasingly being used by the construction industry to enable novel applications. Yet, we are confronted with the timely concern about their potential unintended impacts to the environment and human health. To provide a risk perspective, adverse biological and toxicological effects associated with these nanomaterials are also reviewed along with their mode of action. Aligned with ongoing multidisciplinary action on risk assessment of nanomaterials in the environment, this article concludes by discerning critical knowledge gaps and research needs to inform the responsible manufacturing, use and disposal of nanoparticles in construction materials. Unable to display preview.
Michael F. Hochella Jr. Summary · PDF · References · Request permissions · xml. CHAPTER 4.
Nanotechnology-Related Environment, Health, and Safety Research: Examining the National Strategy
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Effects of nanotechnology on health and environment Abstract: Nanotechnology presents opportunities to create new and better products.
Metrics details. Although no human illness to date is confirmed to be attributed to engineered nanoparticles, occupational epidemiological studies are needed to verify the health effects of nanoparticles. This study used a repeated measures design to explore the potential adverse health effects of workers handling nanomaterials.
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