Automatic Gate Opening And Closing System Pdf

By Olaf S.
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25.01.2021 at 19:26
3 min read
automatic gate opening and closing system pdf

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You might have seen Automatic Door Opener Systems at shopping malls, cinemas, hospitals etc.

Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. The figure of the automatic door in life can be seen everywhere. The main working principle of the automatic door is to sense whether there is an object passing through the sensing device at the top of the door and the auxiliary infrared sensing device on the side of the door frame, giving the door a switch signal and then programmable control. The device, the frequency converter, the drive motor and the transmission control the movement of the door leaf to realize the function of opening and closing the door.

SEA, electronic opening system

Download PDF of this article here. A comprehensive look into automated entry gates, gate injuries, gate maintenance, and gate service providers. How to determine responsibility of involved parties and understand what leads to a claim.

Specific technical aspects associated with motor controllers and gate functions are intentionally omitted from this article. This article is not intended to be a training manual for automatic gate operators for the general public. It is derived from many years of personal experience as an installer, service provider, and retained gate expert witness. Property entry gates that are automatically operated by adjacent motor controllers are responsible for a myriad of different types of claims ranging from vehicular damage to wrongful death.

In this article, generic automated motor controlled devices and related triggering mechanisms will be explained, products and their applications and installations will be examined, and reasons for injuries and property damage will be explored.

Requirements for service providers and service contract agreements will be addressed. Personal injuries associated with both defective and properly working gate products will be discussed.

Typical gate injuries and property damage occur in a variety of ways. It is not uncommon to have a swinging, sliding, or pivoting gate come into contact with a vehicle in the gates path of travel. Many personal injury and property damage claims have arisen from physical contact with a PROPERLY operating gate system or the way that the particular gate system is used or abused.

Property damage or personal injuries resulting from inappropriate usage of a properly operating gate system. Three examples of different types of incidents that can occur due to poor personal choices. Cosmetic indications such as peeling paint or worn out hinges see photo to right are usually good indications that the gate and related hardware are not being properly maintained.

This is a superficial observation that often leads to finding more serious motor control deficiencies. If an injury or property damage results from deferred or defective equipment, one or all of the following three reasons may be observed. As a retained gate expert witness for either plaintiff or defense, an unbiased assessment of the site is essential. The most important aspect of a thorough field examination is possessing the trade specific knowledge for all of the possible devices that can be used with the subject gate controller.

Secondly, a true gate expert must have the ability to identify all of the equipment components that are present and be able to verify their condition and functional capabilities. It is important to approach each inspection with an open mind. Some so called experts offer predetermined and tired opinions based upon their own bias and limited knowledge and expertise.

An expert must positively know if the motor controller is properly installed and that all of the products associated with the controller work and are correctly adjusted. The expert must have a thorough understanding of all of the current available safety features, determine if they are in place, verify that they are properly functioning, and appropriately integrated.

Maintenance and service records, if available at the time of, or prior to the site inspection, can prove important and be significant in determining the cause of an incident. These records can also help make clear which service entities or owners may be associated with or responsible for the claim.

In any gate system there has to be a gate of some sort. It can be installed to either swing or slide and it can operate horizontally, vertically or in some combination of both motions. Gates can be moved manually or have automatic motor controls. Most vehicular gates operate using some sort of automatic motor controller. They allow an ease of access and are safe to use if properly installed, maintained, and are functioning correctly. If the motor in place is not working and it has been properly disconnected from the gate, manually pushing a rolling or swinging gate can be safe if it was properly manufactured, installed, adjusted, and balanced.

When gates have installed automatic motor controllers, they require either remote or local activation devices. Some of the most typical activation devices may include hard wired phone lines between a residence or office and the gate. Architectural pedestals with wall mounted activation keypads or magnetic card readers are common.

Other devices with electronic interfaces capable of energizing the controller, such as hand-held or car equipped radio activated remote controls perform the same function as the hard wired command system, only wirelessly.

In this day and age, many smart phones can be used to open and close automatic motor controllers remotely. It is now possible to monitor the function and position of most automatic motor controllers online. An owner can remotely unlock or activate an automated gate from anywhere in the world to allow user access with a few simple commands on their smart phone or computer. Magnetic inductance ground loops are also installed into many automatic gate systems.

Using any single device from the above list causes the gate motor controller to begin operating. Many times, the starting operation of the motor controller occurs without any advance warning once it has received an activation command. In some circumstances, audible or visible alarms indicate that the motor controller is about to become active. These alarms are more common in a commercial setting where cross traffic needs to be made aware of potential gate operations prior to the operator start up.

But, in many cases, alarms are a false sense of security and are generally ineffective as there is usually not enough time for reaction when the alarm is heard or seen. In high usage systems, in-ground sensors commonly referred to as control loops are frequently placed below the surface of concrete or asphalt adjacent to the gate.

These in-ground loops are fabricated from various gauges and configurations of insulated wire that create a magnetic inductance field. The magnetic field is usually controlled and generated through electrically charged modules attached to the gate operator motor control unit. When a car or truck drives over these ground loops the metal of the vehicles alter the magnetic field of the ground loop. The vehicle presence lengthens the path of the magnetic field to "notify" the motor controller that a vehicle is in proximity to the in-ground loop.

In some systems a base line frequency becomes altered by the presence of the now detected metal of the vehicle. Loops are often positioned in multiple locations near the gate and offer several different functions to protect the vehicles as the vehicle transitions from "approaching" the gate, passing over the "threshold" of the gate, and "clearing" the gate.

Years ago, pressure sensitive pads were tried as triggering devices. These products were prone to false readings and failed after a short period of installation usage. It is a common misconception that modern control loops are only activated from the weight of a vehicle. In-ground loops require routine analysis for continuity and condition.

Damage due to corrosion by chemical reaction of the insulation of the wire loop and roadbed material can create changes in the activation fields of these magnetic devices or cause them to fail completely. Sometimes, weather conditions are also responsible for improperly working sensor loops.

Temperature, snow, ice, and water can lead to defective operation of a deferred control wire loop that has lost insulation qualities. These loops need to be checked using a specific piece of equipment referred to as a "meg" meter that is designed to measure the magnetic inductance.

A competent service provider must use this "megohm" resistance measuring equipment and understand what the readings mean. Generally, low or inconsistent readings indicate that the loop must be replaced.

Mid-range readings usually indicate a working loop. There are various ranges on the meters which are used to verify the overall loop responses which are chosen depending upon the size, length, and gauge of wire installed in the ground. The mult i-meter above has a resistance setting to measure ohms.

This is a typical type of megohm measuring device capable of applying voltage to an in-ground loop. This view of the electronics in a typical gate operator above shows three installed modules that are attached to the in-ground loops.

The actual wire ground loop installed in this driveway above is not visible. The saw cuts indicate that a small trench has been made to place the ground loop wire. Typically, the clipped or rounded corners and trail show the position of the loop. In many cases, additional loops have been installed due to improper original placement of the in-ground loop.

It is important to verify which of the trenched ground loops are currently connected to the motor controller. In addition to the various activation products, there are many different kinds of ancillary safety products manufactured and readily available for automatic gate controllers. At times, wrongfully considered as an optional piece of equipment, these products provide functions designed to protect users from inadvertent gate operations and adverse forces that can be potentially imparted to the gate via the motor control mechanism.

One of many styles of optical sensors available above , added as additional safety for some gate installations. In the most basic motor controlled system an activation command to open the gate is the single "trigger" for the motor. A built-in and field adjustable timer is used to control the closing function of the gate motor control. After the initial activation to open the gate, the timer begins "counting down" until it reaches zero and allows the gate mechanism to close the gate.

This type of minimal circuitry is from a time when no safety devices were thought of as necessary, and is currently significantly below acceptable standards for safe gate operators. These products are still in usage throughout the country as the motor controllers are still in operable condition and have not been upgraded. One of many timer styles of control elements of a typical basic gate operating system left.

For purposes of this article, but not universally applicable, gates and their motor controllers are essentially "blind" mechanical devices. Without any added motor controller safety equipment monitoring obstructions in the path of travel of the gate, the potential for serious physical contact between a moving gate and vehicles or pedestrian is probable at some time.

Typically, local codes, national standards, and professional installations require factory available safety accessories be added to the basic motor controller equipment.

Some of these products include photo electric beams, the aforementioned in-ground control loops, microwave, infrared and ultrasonic sensors, and auto reverse circuits with adjustable sensitivity.

Built in slip clutch mechanisms are part of some motor controllers which can limit the movement of the driven gate. It is important to understand that "slip clutches" are primarily incorporated into most mechanical devices to protect the mechanism. Slip clutches are not safety devices meant primarily to protect a user. They are in place to keep the mechanical operator from destroying itself when adverse resistive forces are encountered. There are manufacturer notes provided in most installation manuals that clearly state that the slip clutch is not a personnel safety device and should not be used in place of appropriate safety devices that are available and intended for increased safe usage of the operator.

Failing to install any available safety equipment is not acceptable from any professional service provider. Even though many service providers do not do so, every gate that has an automated control system, and is contracted to be professionally inspected, should be brought up to the most current standards available. Safety should always be the paramount consideration when any automatic gate system is professionally evaluated. Gate service providers must inform the owner of every automated gate that any substandard conditions exist, or risk being responsible for potential claims that may arise.

Manufacturer designed signage that usually accompanies the gate motor controller is often not enough to inform users of the real potential dangers. That does not make the manufacturers responsible for gate and motor controller injuries in any way. Warning signs provided by the manufacturer are the final attempt by the manufacturer to inform the general public that there are inherent, and generally reasonable acceptable known operating dangers associated with their products operation.

It has been my experience as a door and gate expert witness that signage on moving doors and gates goes unheeded by most people.

Automatic doors - simple, helpful and safe

Its primary function is to disallow unauthorized intruders into the premises using active or passive security devices. Sliding doors, gates, garage doors, and shutters are a few use cases of automatic door opening systems. Additionally, demand for automation is being driven by growth in commercial projects in western countries which adopt industrial automation techniques; this is expected to drive the market during the forecast period. The region is expected to dominate the global market in terms of market share during the forecast period owing to the high demand for industrial and residential automation in the region. The US holds the majority of the North American market due to the presence of large number of local players. Automatic gates are used to control access into a secured area.

Electric gates

Download PDF of this article here. A comprehensive look into automated entry gates, gate injuries, gate maintenance, and gate service providers. How to determine responsibility of involved parties and understand what leads to a claim.

Sliding gate automation systems

Automatic gates are used to control access into a secured area. Most commonly, automatic gates are used at the entrance to the facility, and are used to control vehicular access on and off of the site. For example, a manufacturing plant may use an automatic gate at its main entrance.


An electric gate is an entrance gate which can be opened and closed via an electric powered mechanism. Driveway gate openers can be the rollback sliding type that retracks a gate along the fence or wall on wheels or bearing, or the swing type that draws the gate open or closed on hinges. The most popular electric gates for residential properties are swing gates. Articulated gate openers can be used for gates with wide posts allowing opening in small spaces. Also known as Crank arm operators, they are the main type of automation system sold in France, where low aluminium gates are often used. Under-gate Jack operators usually control the gate by directly moving the pivot point of each gate leaf.

Range of operators for sliding gates weighing up to Kg. Residential use. Power supply 24V. Newly designed magnetic limit switch for quicker installation; precise and perfectly integrated with architecture of site. Range of residential operators for sliding gates weighing up to Kg.

Automatic Door Opener using Arduino and PIR Sensor


To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Mona Moneney.

They open when movement or touch is detected, or at the push of a button, and close automatically: automatic doors make everyday life much easier. And not only are they comfortable, they save energy too. In supermarkets, hotels and car dealerships, and also in public offices and hospitals, these doors serve as inviting and accessible entrances. They can also be retrofitted for a reasonable cost. Automatic door systems are very popular in hotels.

Дорогие друзья, сегодня я свожу счеты с жизнью, не в силах вынести тяжести своих грехов… Не веря своим глазам, Сьюзан медленно читала предсмертную записку. Все это было так неестественно, так непохоже на Хейла, а список преступлений больше напоминал перечень сданного в прачечную белья. Он признался во всем - в том, как понял, что Северная Дакота всего лишь призрак, в том, что нанял людей, чтобы те убили Энсея Танкадо и забрали у него кольцо, в том, что столкнул вниз Фила Чатрукьяна, потому что рассчитывал продать ключ от Цифровой крепости. Сьюзан дошла до последней строки. В ней говорилось о том, к чему она совершенно не была готова. Последние слова записки стали для нее сильнейшим ударом.

Automatic Door Opener using Arduino and PIR Sensor

Он скрыл информацию от директора, запустил вирус в самый защищенный компьютер страны, и, разумеется, ему придется за это дорого заплатить. Он исходил из самых патриотических соображений, но все пошло вкривь и вкось.

 Звездочка, - повторила Сьюзан, - это сноска. Соши прокрутила текст до конца раздела и побелела. - О… Боже ты .

 - Вам нужно проверить, как это выглядит. Бринкерхофф окинул взглядом ее фигуру. - Отсюда выглядит просто отлично. - Да ну тебя, Чед, - засмеялась.  - Я гожусь тебе в матери.

Чатрукьян посмотрел на комнату Третьего узла - не следит ли за ним криптограф. - Какого черта, - промычал он себе под нос. Под его ногами была потайная дверь, почти неразличимая на полу. В руке он сжимал ключ, взятый из лаборатории систем безопасности.

Это пугало Хейла.

 Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос. Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну. - Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование.

В течение двух часов Беккер переводил бесконечный поток китайских иероглифов. Но каждый раз, когда он предлагал перевод, дешифровщики в отчаянии качали головами. Очевидно, получалась бессмыслица.

 Провайдер находится в районе территориального кода двести два. Однако номер пока не удалось узнать. - Двести два. Где это? - Где же на необъятных американских просторах прячется эта загадочная Северная Дакота.

Я все. - Довольно, Грег, - тихо сказал Стратмор. Хейл крепче обхватил Сьюзан и шепнул ей на ухо: - Стратмор столкнул его вниз, клянусь .

Он быстро нажал Да. ВЫ УВЕРЕНЫ. Он снова ответил Да. Мгновение спустя компьютер подал звуковой сигнал.

Никакое количество люстр под сводами не в состоянии осветить бесконечную тьму. Тени повсюду. И только в вышине витражи окон впускают внутрь уродство мира, окрашивая его в красновато-синие тона.

 Мидж.  - Джабба засопел и сделал изрядный глоток.  - Если бы в игрушке Стратмора завелся вирус, он бы сразу мне позвонил.


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