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- Top 100 Java Interview Questions and Answers (Download PDF)
- 100 Common Interview Questions (and Awesome Answers for Each)
- Top 100 Hadoop Interview Questions and Answers 2021
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Master Big Data with real-world Hadoop Projects. Click here to Tweet. IBM has a nice, simple explanation for the four critical features of big data: a Volume —Scale of data b Velocity —Analysis of streaming data c Variety — Different forms of data d Veracity —Uncertainty of data. How big data analysis helps businesses increase their revenue? Give example.
Top 100 Java Interview Questions and Answers (Download PDF)
Master Big Data with real-world Hadoop Projects. Click here to Tweet. IBM has a nice, simple explanation for the four critical features of big data: a Volume —Scale of data b Velocity —Analysis of streaming data c Variety — Different forms of data d Veracity —Uncertainty of data.
How big data analysis helps businesses increase their revenue? Give example. Here is an interesting video that explains how various industries are leveraging big data analysis to increase their revenue. Name some companies that use Hadoop. Click here to tweet this question. Click on this link to view a detailed list of some of the top companies using Hadoop.
Data that can be stored in traditional database systems in the form of rows and columns, for example, the online purchase transactions can be referred to as Structured Data.
Data that can be stored only partially in traditional database systems, for example, data in XML records can be referred to as semi-structured data. Unorganized and raw data that cannot be categorized as semi-structured or structured data is referred to as unstructured data. Facebook updates, tweets on Twitter, Reviews, weblogs, etc. On what concept the Hadoop framework works?
MapReduce distributes the workload into various tasks that can run in parallel. Hadoop jobs perform 2 separate tasks- job. The map job breaks down the data sets into key-value pairs or tuples.
The reduce job then takes the output of the map job and combines the data tuples to into smaller set of tuples. The reduce job is always performed after the map job is executed. Hadoop applications have wide range of technologies that provide great advantage in solving complex business problems. What is Hadoop streaming? Hadoop distribution has a generic application programming interface for writing Map and Reduce jobs in any desired programming language like Python, Perl, Ruby, etc.
This is referred to as Hadoop Streaming. Users can create and run jobs with any kind of shell scripts or executable as the Mapper or Reducers. The latest tool for Hadoop streaming is Spark. What is the best hardware configuration to run Hadoop? Hadoop highly benefits from using ECC memory though it is not low - end. ECC memory is recommended for running Hadoop because most of the Hadoop users have experienced various checksum errors by using non ECC memory.
However, the hardware configuration also depends on the workflow requirements and can change accordingly. What are the most commonly defined input formats in Hadoop? This data needs to be stored in HDFS. Data can either be ingested through batch jobs that run every 15 minutes, once every night and so on or through streaming in real-time from ms to seconds. How will you choose various file formats for storing and processing data using Apache Hadoop?
CSV files are an ideal fit for exchanging data between hadoop and external systems. It is advisable not to use header and footer lines when using CSV files. JSON stores both data and schema together in a record and also enables complete schema evolution and splitability. However, JSON files do not support block level compression. This kind of file format is best suited for long term storage with Schema. Avro files store metadata with data and also let you specify independent schema for reading the files.
You have a file that contains billion URLs. What is Big Data? Big data is defined as the voluminous amount of structured, unstructured or semi-structured data that has huge potential for mining but is so large that it cannot be processed using traditional database systems.
Big data is characterized by its high velocity, volume and variety that requires cost effective and innovative methods for information processing to draw meaningful business insights. More than the volume of the data — it is the nature of the data that defines whether it is considered as Big Data or not. You can share details on how you deployed Hadoop distributions like Cloudera and Hortonworks in your organization either in a standalone environment or on the cloud.
Having set up the Hadoop cluster, talk about how you initially extracted the data from data sources like APIs, SQL based databases, etc and stored it in HDFS storage layer , how you performed data cleaning and validation, and the series of ETLs you performed to extract the data in the given format to extract KPIs.
What is a block and block scanner in HDFS? Block Scanner - Block Scanner tracks the list of blocks present on a DataNode and verifies them to find any kind of checksum errors. Block Scanners use a throttling mechanism to reserve disk bandwidth on the datanode. NameNode uses two files for the namespace-. Checkpoint node creates checkpoints for the namespace at regular intervals by downloading the edits and fsimage file from the NameNode and merging it locally.
The new image is then again updated back to the active NameNode. Backup Node also provides check pointing functionality like that of the checkpoint node but it also maintains its up-to-date in-memory copy of the file system namespace that is in sync with the active NameNode. What is commodity hardware? Commodity Hardware refers to inexpensive systems that do not have high availability or high quality. Hadoop can be run on any commodity hardware and does not require any super computer s or high end hardware configuration to execute jobs.
Explain about the process of inter cluster data copying. If this data copying is within the hadoop cluster then it is referred to as inter cluster data copying. DistCP requires both source and destination to have a compatible or same version of hadoop. How can you overwrite the replication factors in HDFS? Replication factor is a property of HDFS that can be set accordingly for the entire cluster to adjust the number of times the blocks are to be replicated to ensure high data availability.
For every block that is stored in HDFS, the cluster will have n-1 duplicated blocks. So, if the replication factor during the PUT operation is set to 1 instead of the default value 3, then it will have a single copy of data. Under these circumstances when the replication factor is set to 1 ,if the DataNode crashes under any circumstances, then only single copy of the data would be lost. What is the process to change the files at arbitrary locations in HDFS? HDFS does not support modifications at arbitrary offsets in the file or multiple writers but files are written by a single writer in append only format i.
Explain about the indexing process in HDFS. Indexing process in HDFS depends on the block size. HDFS stores the last part of the data that further points to the address where the next part of data chunk is stored.
What is a rack awareness and on what basis is data stored in a rack? All the data nodes put together form a storage area i. The rack information i. The process of selecting closer data nodes depending on the rack information is known as Rack Awareness. The contents present in the file are divided into data block as soon as the client is ready to load the file into the hadoop cluster.
After consulting with the NameNode, client allocates 3 data nodes for each data block. For each data block, there exists 2 copies in one rack and the third copy is present in another rack. This is generally referred to as the Replica Placement Policy.
There does not exist any NameNode without data. If it is a NameNode then it should have some sort of data in it.
What happens when a user submits a Hadoop job when the NameNode is down- does the job get in to hold or does it fail. What happens when a user submits a Hadoop job when the Job Tracker is down- does the job get in to hold or does it fail. NameNode receives the Hadoop job which then looks for the data requested by the client and provides the block information.
JobTracker takes care of resource allocation of the hadoop job to ensure timely completion. Edges nodes are the interface between hadoop cluster and the external network. Edge nodes are used for running cluster adminstration tools and client applications. Edge nodes are also referred to as gateway nodes.
Click here to know more about our Certified Hadoop Developer course. Explain the usage of Context Object. Context Object is used to help the mapper interact with other Hadoop systems. Context Object can be used for updating counters, to report the progress and to provide any application level status updates.
ContextObject has the configuration details for the job and also interfaces, that helps it to generating the output. What are the core methods of a Reducer? Explain about the partitioning, shuffle and sort phase Click here to Tweet.
Shuffle Phase- Once the first map tasks are completed, the nodes continue to perform several other map tasks and also exchange the intermediate outputs with the reducers as required.
This process of moving the intermediate outputs of map tasks to the reducer is referred to as Shuffling. Sort Phase - Hadoop MapReduce automatically sorts the set of intermediate keys on a single node before they are given as input to the reducer. Partitioning Phase- The process that determines which intermediate keys and value will be received by each reducer instance is referred to as partitioning.
The destination partition is same for any key irrespective of the mapper instance that generated it. How to write a custom partitioner for a Hadoop MapReduce job?
100 Common Interview Questions (and Awesome Answers for Each)
It is not enough to have solid answers for the few basic and common interview questions. You need to be prepared for the full spectrum of questions which may be asked. Following are one hundred of the most common interview questions you are likely to encounter. Each question has a link to detailed information on why the interviewer is asking the question and samples and examples of awesome answers, both for entry level and experienced job seekers. Click through on each link for all the details:. Don't just read these questions—practice and rehearse the answers in advance.
These are general interview questions that work for most jobs. If you need industry-specific questions, check out our interview question directory. Download all 50 interview questions in a single PDF document and use them for your next interview. The consensus is to go for quality, not quantity here. Candidates should give a short list of strengths, and back each one up with examples that illustrate the strength. Also, they should explain how these strengths will be useful in the job they're applying for, and use this question to say something interesting about themselves.
To seek a good job and build a career in any industry, candidates need to crack the interview and HR round in which they are asked for various interview questions. We have compiled a list of commonly asked HR round interview questions and answers that an interviewer might ask you during any job interview. Candidates applying for the job from fresher level to advance level job are likely to be asked these HR round interview questions depending on their experience and various other factors. Following are most commonly asked questions during an HR interview round for freshers as well as experienced job seeking candidates. This HR round interview questions guide will help you crack the interview and help you get your dream job. I like to apply my analytical skills to develop world-class products in the XYZ domain. I also travel a lot and an active member of XXX travel group or club through which I could explore my hobby more.
Top 100 Hadoop Interview Questions and Answers 2021
Download PDF We have compiled the most frequently asked Java Interview Questions and Answers that will help you prepare for the Basic Java interview questions that an interviewer might ask you during your interview. In this list of Basic Java interview questions, we have covered all commonly asked basic and advanced Core Java interview questions with detailed answers to help you clear the job interview. The following list contains important Core Java interview questions for freshers as well as Java interview questions and answers for experienced programmers to help them prepare for the interview. This detailed guide of interview questions for Java Programming will help you to crack your Job interview easily. What is the difference between an Inner Class and a Sub-Class?
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How to Answer 18 Situational Job Interview Questions
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