Introduction To Computers And Programming PdfBy Anthony V. In and pdf 27.01.2021 at 15:44 10 min read
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- Computer programming language
- Computer programming language
- Programming Fundamentals Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER AND PROGRAMMING
Computer programming language
Computer programming language , any of various languages for expressing a set of detailed instructions for a digital computer. Although there are many computer languages, relatively few are widely used. In contrast, high-level languages shield a programmer from worrying about such considerations and provide a notation that is more easily written and read by programmers. A machine language consists of the numeric codes for the operations that a particular computer can execute directly.
Machine language instructions typically use some bits to represent operations, such as addition, and some to represent operands, or perhaps the location of the next instruction. Machine language is difficult to read and write, since it does not resemble conventional mathematical notation or human language, and its codes vary from computer to computer. Assembly language is one level above machine language.
It uses short mnemonic codes for instructions and allows the programmer to introduce names for blocks of memory that hold data. Assembly language is designed to be easily translated into machine language. Although blocks of data may be referred to by name instead of by their machine addresses, assembly language does not provide more sophisticated means of organizing complex information. Like machine language, assembly language requires detailed knowledge of internal computer architecture.
It is useful when such details are important, as in programming a computer to interact with peripheral devices printers, scanners, storage devices, and so forth. Algorithmic languages are designed to express mathematical or symbolic computations. They can express algebraic operations in notation similar to mathematics and allow the use of subprograms that package commonly used operations for reuse.
They were the first high-level languages. It was intended for scientific computations with real numbers and collections of them organized as one- or multidimensional arrays. Its control structures included conditional IF statements, repetitive loops so-called DO loops , and a GOTO statement that allowed nonsequential execution of program code. It was immediately successful and continues to evolve.
ALGOL algo rithmic l anguage was designed by a committee of American and European computer scientists during —60 for publishing algorithms , as well as for doing computations. Like LISP described in the next section , ALGOL had recursive subprograms—procedures that could invoke themselves to solve a problem by reducing it to a smaller problem of the same kind. ALGOL introduced block structure, in which a program is composed of blocks that might contain both data and instructions and have the same structure as an entire program.
Block structure became a powerful tool for building large programs out of small components. ALGOL contributed a notation for describing the structure of a programming language, Backus—Naur Form, which in some variation became the standard tool for stating the syntax grammar of programming languages.
ALGOL was widely used in Europe, and for many years it remained the language in which computer algorithms were published.
Many important languages, such as Pascal and Ada both described later , are its descendants. Its capacity to structure data and programs through the composition of smaller units is comparable to that of ALGOL. It uses a compact notation and provides the programmer with the ability to operate with the addresses of data as well as with their values. COBOL co mmon b usiness o riented l anguage has been heavily used by businesses since its inception in A committee of computer manufacturers and users and U.
Business computations organize and manipulate large quantities of data, and COBOL introduced the record data structure for such tasks. A record clusters heterogeneous data—such as a name, an ID number, an age, and an address—into a single unit. This contrasts with scientific languages, in which homogeneous arrays of numbers are common.
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Computer programming language
Computer programming language , any of various languages for expressing a set of detailed instructions for a digital computer. Although there are many computer languages, relatively few are widely used. In contrast, high-level languages shield a programmer from worrying about such considerations and provide a notation that is more easily written and read by programmers. A machine language consists of the numeric codes for the operations that a particular computer can execute directly. Machine language instructions typically use some bits to represent operations, such as addition, and some to represent operands, or perhaps the location of the next instruction.
Programming Fundamentals Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER AND PROGRAMMING
Software The instructions that tell the computer and computer networks what to do. Transport service protocol for a distributed operating system on LAN-based engineering workstations Our day-to-day activities: paying bills, buying groceries, using social media, seeking entertainment, work This can be best illustrated by an example.
Don't show me this again. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW.
Introduction to C++ (and C) Programming
Мозговые штурмы. Сьюзан замолчала. По-видимому, Стратмор проверял свой план с помощью программы Мозговой штурм. Если кто-то имеет возможность читать его электронную почту, то и остальная информация на его компьютере становится доступной… - Переделка Цифровой крепости - чистое безумие! - кричал Хейл. - Ты отлично понимаешь, что это за собой влечет - полный доступ АНБ к любой информации. - Сирена заглушала его слова, но Хейл старался ее перекричать. - Ты считаешь, что мы готовы взять на себя такую ответственность.
Но это теперь не имело никакого значения, мысль о смерти ее не пугала. Смерть остановит боль. Она будет опять рядом с Дэвидом. Шифровалка начала вибрировать, словно из ее глубин на поверхность рвалось сердитое морское чудовище. Ей слышался голос Дэвида: Беги, Сьюзан, беги.
Коммандер, - она снова попыталась настоять на своем, - нам нужно поговорить. - Минутку! - отрезал Стратмор, вопросительно глядя на Хейла.