Causes And Effects Of Flooding Pdf


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Believe it or not, flooding is the deadliest type of severe weather. Use the buttons below to jump to the flood facts you care about the most, or read the entire Flooding guide to become an expert! Flood Facts.

Flash floods are among the most severe natural hazards that cause disastrous environmental and human impacts. The city of Gabes Southern Tunisia is prone to harmful flooding, because of its location on a low plane and its extremely erratic rainfall distribution. Flood risk associated with this is expected to increase further in the coming years due to the high rate of urbanization and an ever growing population.

How does flooding affect humans and the environment?

Urban flooding has become a major problem in many parts of the world due to its social, economic and environmental impact. Drawing on a comprehensive literature review, combined with individual co-author in-depth experience in research and practice in Ghana, we searched academic database such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Science Direct and Google scholar for recent studies. One of the most threatening disasters confronting the world is flooding.

It has destroyed developmental infrastructure and increased human casualties around the globe [ 1 ]. For example, 5 million people were displaced during the period — globally due to temperature and heavy rainfall.

In Pakistan, flood occurrence is pervasive and spreading uncontrollably. This led to a huge economic loss to the government in [ 3 ]. In Africa, urban flooding has become one of the major threats to deal with given the poor and limited infrastructure, low capacity of local governments e. Additionally, people in poverty are relatively overexposed to flooding. They usually accept and cope with flooding because of limited alternatives [ 7 ].

In Africa, management plans to deal with flood are being developed and implemented; however, it appears that effective implementation still remains a challenge. For example, despite the effort to address urban flooding in Ouagadougou, the problem continues to persist due to the high cost of mitigation measures and the inability of the people to effect change [ 8 ].

Related studies demonstrated that fragmental approaches to flood risk management are ineffective [ 9 ]. In the context of Ghana, apart from destruction of properties and economic losses due to flooding, people living in flood areas are at a high risk of contracting diseases such as cholera, malaria and hepatitis E [ 10 , 11 ].

In an attempt to address the problem associated with urban flooding in Ghana, city authorities issue eviction notices to informal residents, particularly in settlements in floodplains and wetlands.

However, it seems that the eviction order has not been effective and has increased flooding in the informal areas. There are an increased number of approaches available that could be tapped to address the socio-economic, environmental and institutional challenges in poor urban communities [ 12 ].

Local government and residents may play a role in dealing with urban flood; however, due to distrust and limited community engagement, policy implementation has become weak [ 13 ]. Numerous policy options and strategies have emerged to protect urban infrastructure against flooding and enhance urban flood resilience and sustainability. Intensification of rainfall has been associated with climate change [ 18 ].

Ghana is not an exception when it comes to urban flooding. For example, Ghana recorded unprecedented flood event in November , which affected 55 communities and displaced , people. Moreover, on 3 June , flood event led to over deaths [ 20 ]. This phenomenon has become severe and widespread [ 26 ]. Finding from Amoako and Inkoom [ 21 ] also revealed that rainfall intensity or storm surges trigger flash flood in urban areas. Research demonstrated that urban flood in Ghana occur due to poor drainage system [ 27 ], poor waste management [ 28 ], removal of urban vegetation [ 23 ] and poor urban and structural planning [ 23 , 29 ]; however, the planning system in Ghana has failed to successfully control urban physical development [ 30 ] and this has exacerbated the effects of urban flooding.

This has led to an increase in relief expenditure and health control by government, and potentially increasing the overall national budget.

According to the literature, two major shortcomings were identified. Firstly, in spite of a burgeoning threat of urban flood, limited studies so far have unearthed the current knowledge of causes, effects and coping strategies in Ghana and future research directions.

While the works of Okyere et al. Additionally, Korah and Cobbinah [ 34 ] focused on institutional and social dimension, whereas Ahadzie and Proverbs [ 25 ] were interested in flood risk management strategies. From the foregoing, it is evident that none of the reviews did cover important themes of flood research in an integrated manner. Based on the research issues identified, this research seeks to address the following questions:.

The last section presents the conclusion and directions for future research. Currently, there are sixteen regions, which are further divided into local districts. Currently, Ghana has a population of about We reviewed 33 peer-reviewed articles from to As part of the review, co-authors with longstanding experience in urban flood, both in research and practice in Ghana, critically examined and refined selected articles to improve the validity of the findings.

Considering electronic search, the author used the phrases and keywords that were relevant to the study. These search words and phrases were entered in different combinations and were searched for in the search engines. In order to include articles that were not found in the search engine, the authors applied the snowball approach technique to identify hidden publications or articles relevant to the study.

In the content analyses of the selected articles, a qualitative data analysis tool NVivo 10 was used to store textual information. The short-listed studies were analysed to identify themes, and topics emerging from the selected articles. Articles were further analysed in terms of frequency of publication in journal outlets, year of publication, research methods and region where the study was conducted.

These were imported into an excel spreadsheet for easy descriptive analyses to be done. Finally, the frequency of themes across the 33 studies was also examined. The search excluded studies that include reports, dissertations, tutorials, workshops, panels and poster sessions.

The following codes were used for the content analysis. The present study focuses on Ghana. Mendeley was used to store citations of relevant articles from steps 1 to 4. In the second step, papers were obtained after examining titles and keywords.

After the abstract review, 43 papers were identified through an in-depth screening process. The second most active regions are Northern and Ashanti, with six and five articles, respectively. This could be as a result of higher frequency of flooding in recent years. Another reason could be increased exposure, the susceptibility of Accra to flood hazards, leading to more flood events [ 64 ], and thus increasing research engagement.

It shows increasing research in with 6 publications, respectively, followed by , and with 4 publications each. A total of 18 articles were identified and coded for patterns in data [ 65 ]. Eighteen studies reported poor urban planning and development as the causes of flood, for instance, [ 23 , 29 , 57 , 66 ]. Next, 11 studies reported on poor drainage network, for instance, [ 27 , 67 , 68 ].

Similarly, ten studies attributed the cause of flood to indiscriminate of disposal of waste materials, for instance, [ 23 , 28 , 68 ]. About seven studies mentioned that flood can cause damage to homes, destruction of livelihoods, collapse of houses, etc.

Five studies mentioned that floods have led to the destruction of economic infrastructure, property, public areas and the environment, thus putting enormous costs to the national government and individuals [ 66 , 70 ]. Moreover, four studies indicated that flood can potentially increase the transmission of communicable diseases and mental health condition [ 46 , 71 , 72 ].

The results show three coping strategies used by residents, namely reactive, preventive and recovery, for instance, [ 53 ]. In terms of reactive, nine studies demonstrated that flood victims relocate to a safe place and protect their valuables and collectables, for instance [ 7 , 40 ]. Finally, three studies mentioned flood victims seek Government, friends and family support for relief items and cash, for instance, [ 53 ] and five studies reported community clean-up such as disposal of wastes and clearing of gutters, for instance [ 53 ].

Human activities increase the risks of flood due to human and ecological interaction. In Africa, urban flood has become one of the major threats to be dealt with in the face of poor socio-economic conditions [ 6 ]. For example, poor people tend to build houses and live in flood-prone areas as those areas are considered affordable. In a similar study, Generally, in Ghana, flood occurs as a result of natural and anthropogenic factors.

In urban areas, roads, pavements, and compacted soil areas have increased impermeable surfaces, thereby increasing surface water runoff. This has also led to the increase in discharge that overloads drainage channels [ 66 ]. This has implication for real estate developers and homeowners to understand community and individual impact of flood and re-thinking of sustainable urban land use policy and development.

Human activities such as throwing rubbish into river bodies can cause flood during the raining season [ 28 , 46 , 53 ].

Similarly, half of the residents dispose of waste into gutters, streets and bushes causing health problem [ 77 ]. This suggests that flood event may be more rampant due to improper waste disposal in urban areas.

This has implications for the promotion of flood resilience through improved drainage and green infrastructural systems. In other related studies, land use control is established as a contributor to flooding. For example, it was found that delays in permit approvals, lack of monitoring and inspections of physical developments, non-conformance with permit laws and regulations, and poor enforcement were responsible for urban flood [ 29 ].

Tasantab [ 29 ] suggested early approval of permit as well as inspecting and monitoring of physical development to ensure compliance with planning requirements could be an important strategy to mitigating flooding events. Similarly, the land ownership system is an impediment to the successful management of wetlands by city authorities [ 57 ]. Owusu-Ansah et al. It was observed that wetlands, riparian lands and urban vegetation are being cleared for built-up purposes [ 23 ]. The rate at which water flows into river channels depends particularly on the available vegetation cover.

It is important to protect wetlands to hold some of the volume of water during heavy downpour. Flash flooding has increased in urban areas, particularly in Accra due to the increases in deforested land and urban sprawl. Moreover, educational policy should target potential victims and community because a lot of people do not understand the value of wetlands [ 78 ]. Previous research indicated the value of an integrated approach comprising of active participation of all the relevant stakeholders, including, governments authorities, international and local and private sectors in resolving and addressing flooding problems [ 3 ].

It was revealed that torrential rainfall is not just the main cause of recent flood, but poor drainage system was actually the main cause of flood in the urban areas [ 23 , 27 ]. It is important to strengthen the drainage system design at where wetlands are reclaimed for developmental purposes to help control flood. As economic infrastructure such as electricity, bridges and roads are damaged, communities are cut-off and some economic activities become disrupted.

This can increase community vulnerability economically and normal life comes to a standstill. This is due to the absence of infrastructure and effective polices to mitigate the effects [ 46 ]. Dziwornu and Kugbey [ 71 ] discovered mental health problems among flood victims and therefore suggested that care must be taken to address the psychological needs of victims in the aftermath of flood disaster.

For example, the loss of loved ones and properties can cause depression and stress among adults and children. The psychological impact can last for a long period of time when their psychological needs are not met quickly. People leaving in low lying areas are more likely to be affected by the flooding [ 47 ]. The impact of floods can be experienced by individuals and society, and have social, economic, and environmental consequences.

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Flooding is experienced all over the globe and for a variety of reasons — but why exactly does flooding occur? There are several human causes of flooding, including poorly designed infrastructure. There are also natural reasons flooding happens. Here are eight of the most common causes of flooding, both natural and human-induced. And the consequences of flooding can be savage.


effects on people and the environment. Put simply A flood is caused by a combination of heavy rainfall causing river / oceans to over flow their banks, and can.


What Causes Floods? Top 8 Common Causes of Flooding

A flood is a body of water that covers land which is normally dry. Floods are common natural disasters that can affect millions of people around the world. They destroy houses and buildings, and carry soil away from valuable farming land. Floods can also contaminate drinking water and lead to diseases.

Flooding of areas used for socio-economic activities produces a variety of negative impacts. The magnitude of adverse impacts depends on the vulnerability of the activities and population and the frequency, intensity and extent of flooding. Some of these factors are shown below;. Loss of lives and property: Immediate impacts of flooding include loss of human life, damage to property, destruction of crops, loss of livestock, non-functioning of infrastructure facilities and deterioration of health condition owing to waterborne diseases. Flash floods, with little or no warning time, cause more deaths than slow-rising riverine floods.

Urban flooding has become a major problem in many parts of the world due to its social, economic and environmental impact.

In Australia floods are the most expensive natural disasters

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What are the consequences of floods?

3 Comments

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01.02.2021 at 19:47 - Reply

Floods impact on both individuals and communities, and have social, economic, and environmental consequences.

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07.02.2021 at 04:31 - Reply

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