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- File:Romeo and Juliet (1917) Yale.pdf
- 9th Grade: Student Materials for Romeo and Juliet
- Romeo And Juliet
- Romeo and Juliet
File:Romeo and Juliet (1917) Yale.pdf
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet , is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers.
Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both but expanded the plot by developing a number of supporting characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris.
Believed to have been written between and , the play was first published in a quarto version in The text of the first quarto version was of poor quality, however, and later editions corrected the text to conform more closely with Shakespeare's original. Shakespeare's use of his poetic dramatic structure especially effects such as switching between comedy and tragedy to heighten tension, his expansion of minor characters, and his use of sub-plots to embellish the story has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill.
The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play. Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times for stage, film, musical, and opera venues. During the English Restoration , it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant.
David Garrick 's 18th-century version also modified several scenes, removing material then considered indecent, and Georg Benda 's Romeo und Julie omitted much of the action and used a happy ending.
Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman 's, restored the original text and focused on greater realism. John Gielgud 's version kept very close to Shakespeare's text and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama. The play, set in Verona , Italy , begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet servants who, like their masters, are sworn enemies.
Prince Escalus of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Later, Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter Juliet , but Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball. Meanwhile, Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo , Montague's son, about Romeo's recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline , one of Capulet's nieces.
Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio , Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. However, Romeo instead meets and falls in love with Juliet. Juliet's cousin, Tybalt , is enraged at Romeo for sneaking into the ball but is only stopped from killing Romeo by Juliet's father, who does not wish to shed blood in his house. After the ball, in what is now called the "balcony scene", Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and overhears Juliet at her window vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues.
Romeo makes himself known to her, and they agree to be married. With the help of Friar Laurence , who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are secretly married the next day. Tybalt, meanwhile, still incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him to a duel. Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Mercutio is offended by Tybalt's insolence, as well as Romeo's "vile submission",  and accepts the duel on Romeo's behalf.
Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight. Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo confronts and slays Tybalt. Benvolio argues that Romeo has justly executed Tybalt for the murder of Mercutio. The Prince, now having lost a kinsman in the warring families' feud, exiles Romeo from Verona, under penalty of death if he ever returns.
Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber, where they consummate their marriage. Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride". Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a potion that will put her into a deathlike coma or catalepsy for "two and forty hours".
On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt. The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, Romeo learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant, Balthasar. Heartbroken, Romeo buys poison from an apothecary and goes to the Capulet crypt.
He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, discovering that Romeo is dead, stabs herself with his dagger and joins him in death. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers". The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud.
Romeo and Juliet borrows from a tradition of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity. One of these is Pyramus and Thisbe , from Ovid 's Metamorphoses , which contains parallels to Shakespeare's story: the lovers' parents despise each other, and Pyramus falsely believes his lover Thisbe is dead.
One of the earliest references to the names Montague and Capulet is from Dante 's Divine Comedy , who mentions the Montecchi Montagues and the Cappelletti Capulets in canto six of Purgatorio : . Come and see, you who are negligent, Montagues and Capulets, Monaldi and Filippeschi One lot already grieving, the other in fear. However, the reference is part of a polemic against the moral decay of Florence , Lombardy , and the Italian Peninsula as a whole; Dante , through his characters, chastises German King Albert I for neglecting his responsibilities towards Italy "you who are negligent" , and successive popes for their encroachment from purely spiritual affairs, thus leading to a climate of incessant bickering and warfare between rival political parties in Lombardy.
History records the name of the family Montague as being lent to such a political party in Verona , but that of the Capulets as from a Cremonese family, both of whom play out their conflict in Lombardy as a whole rather than within the confines of Verona. The earliest known version of the Romeo and Juliet tale akin to Shakespeare's play is the story of Mariotto and Gianozza by Masuccio Salernitano , in the 33rd novel of his Il Novellino published in His version of the story includes the secret marriage, the colluding friar, the fray where a prominent citizen is killed, Mariotto's exile, Gianozza's forced marriage, the potion plot, and the crucial message that goes astray.
In this version, Mariotto is caught and beheaded and Gianozza dies of grief. Luigi da Porto — adapted the story as Giulietta e Romeo  and included it in his Historia novellamente ritrovata di due Nobili Amanti , written in and published posthumously in in Venice.
The next morning, the Savorgnans led an attack on the city , and many members of the Strumieri were murdered. When years later, half-paralyzed from a battle-wound, he wrote Giulietta e Romeo in Montorso Vicentino from where he could see the "castles" of Verona , he dedicated the novella to bellisima e leggiadra madonna Lucina Savorgnan. Da Porto gave Romeo and Juliet most of its modern form, including the names of the lovers, the rival families of Montecchi and Capuleti, and the location in Verona.
Da Porto originated the remaining basic elements of the story: the feuding families, Romeo—left by his mistress—meeting Giulietta at a dance at her house, the love scenes including the balcony scene , the periods of despair, Romeo killing Giulietta's cousin Tebaldo , and the families' reconciliation after the lovers' suicides.
In , Matteo Bandello published the second volume of his Novelle , which included his version of Giuletta e Romeo ,  probably written between and Bandello lengthened and weighed down the plot while leaving the storyline basically unchanged though he did introduce Benvolio. Boaistuau adds much moralising and sentiment, and the characters indulge in rhetorical outbursts.
Romeo and Juliet is a dramatisation of Brooke's translation, and Shakespeare follows the poem closely but adds extra detail to both major and minor characters the Nurse and Mercutio in particular. Christopher Marlowe 's Hero and Leander and Dido, Queen of Carthage , both similar stories written in Shakespeare's day, are thought to be less of a direct influence, although they may have helped create an atmosphere in which tragic love stories could thrive.
It is unknown when exactly Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Juliet's Nurse refers to an earthquake she says occurred 11 years ago. Other earthquakes—both in England and in Verona—have been proposed in support of the different dates. Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet was published in two quarto editions prior to the publication of the First Folio of These are referred to as Q1 and Q2.
The first printed edition, Q1, appeared in early , printed by John Danter. Because its text contains numerous differences from the later editions, it is labelled a so-called ' bad quarto '; the 20th-century editor T. Spencer described it as "a detestable text, probably a reconstruction of the play from the imperfect memories of one or two of the actors", suggesting that it had been pirated for publication.
Alternative theories are that some or all of 'the bad quartos' are early versions by Shakespeare or abbreviations made either for Shakespeare's company or for other companies. It was printed in by Thomas Creede and published by Cuthbert Burby. Q2 is about lines longer than Q1. Scholars believe that Q2 was based on Shakespeare's pre-performance draft called his foul papers since there are textual oddities such as variable tags for characters and "false starts" for speeches that were presumably struck through by the author but erroneously preserved by the typesetter.
It is a much more complete and reliable text and was reprinted in Q3 , Q4 and Q5. The First Folio text of was based primarily on Q3, with clarifications and corrections possibly coming from a theatrical prompt book or Q1. Pope began a tradition of editing the play to add information such as stage directions missing in Q2 by locating them in Q1.
This tradition continued late into the Romantic period. Fully annotated editions first appeared in the Victorian period and continue to be produced today, printing the text of the play with footnotes describing the sources and culture behind the play. Scholars have found it extremely difficult to assign one specific, overarching theme to the play. Proposals for a main theme include a discovery by the characters that human beings are neither wholly good nor wholly evil, but instead are more or less alike,  awaking out of a dream and into reality, the danger of hasty action, or the power of tragic fate.
None of these have widespread support. However, even if an overall theme cannot be found it is clear that the play is full of several small, thematic elements that intertwine in complex ways.
Several of those most often debated by scholars are discussed below. Juliet Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss. Romeo and Juliet is sometimes considered to have no unifying theme, save that of young love.
Since it is such an obvious subject of the play, several scholars have explored the language and historical context behind the romance of the play. On their first meeting, Romeo and Juliet use a form of communication recommended by many etiquette authors in Shakespeare's day: metaphor.
By using metaphors of saints and sins, Romeo was able to test Juliet's feelings for him in a non-threatening way. This method was recommended by Baldassare Castiglione whose works had been translated into English by this time. He pointed out that if a man used a metaphor as an invitation, the woman could pretend she did not understand him, and he could retreat without losing honour. Juliet, however, participates in the metaphor and expands on it. The religious metaphors of "shrine", "pilgrim", and "saint" were fashionable in the poetry of the time and more likely to be understood as romantic rather than blasphemous, as the concept of sainthood was associated with the Catholicism of an earlier age.
In the later balcony scene, Shakespeare has Romeo overhear Juliet's soliloquy, but in Brooke's version of the story, her declaration is done alone. By bringing Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop, Shakespeare breaks from the normal sequence of courtship. Usually, a woman was required to be modest and shy to make sure that her suitor was sincere, but breaking this rule serves to speed along the plot.
9th Grade: Student Materials for Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet, usually the first Shakespeare your students will read, is your students' perfect introduction to the power of his poetry. While many of them will know the basic plot, this edition will provide them with the skills to thoroughly understand this classic story of true love and the…. While many reading motivation programs simply test for reading comprehension, the Literary Black Belt Assessment Exam and Certification Program encourages students to become active readers and critical thinkers through a series of incremental assessment tests. By leveling from white through black…. Romeo and Juliet is the classic story of love and the destructive power of fate. This ready-to-use unit plan is one of Prestwick House's most trusted and well-loved teaching resources.
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet , is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Shakespeare borrowed heavily from both but expanded the plot by developing a number of supporting characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris. Believed to have been written between and , the play was first published in a quarto version in The text of the first quarto version was of poor quality, however, and later editions corrected the text to conform more closely with Shakespeare's original.
The Shakescleare version of Romeo and Juliet contains the complete original play alongisde a line-by-line modern English translation. Now you can easily understand even the most complex and archaic words and phrases word spoken by Romeo, Juliet, Mercutio, Friar Laurence, the Nurse, Tybalt, and all the Capulets and Montagues, throughout the entire play, including famous quotes like "Wherefore art thou Romeo? Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning? Our Teacher Editions can help.
Romeo And Juliet
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Romeo and Juliet
SAMPSON True; and therefore women, being the weaker vessels, are ever thrust to the wall: therefore I will push Montague's men from the wall, and thrust his maids to the wall. Draw thy tool! I will bite my thumb at them; which is a disgrace to them, if they bear it. But now, my lord, what say you to my suit? CAPULET But saying o'er what I have said before: My child is yet a stranger in the world; She hath not seen the change of fourteen years, Let two more summers wither in their pride, Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride.
Я бы хотел задержаться. - Значит, вы видели башню. Гиральду. Беккер кивнул.
ГЛАВА 80 Хейл, крепко сжимая шею Сьюзан, крикнул в темноту: - Коммандер, твоя подружка у меня в руках. Я требую выпустить меня отсюда. В ответ - тишина. Его руки крепче сжали ее шею. - Я сейчас ее убью.