X And Y Theory Pdf

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18.01.2021 at 23:57
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x and y theory pdf

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In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management.

During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization. The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility.


In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second.

Under Theory X, one can take a hard or soft approach to getting results. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control. The soft approach, however, is to be permissive and seek harmony in the hopes that, in return, employees will cooperate when asked.

However, neither of these extremes is optimal. The hard approach results in hostility, purposely low output, and extreme union demands. Once those needs have been satisfied, the motivation disappears. While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, it may be the only way available. People will use work to satisfy their lower needs and seek to satisfy their higher needs during their leisure time. However, employees can be most productive when their work goals align with their higher-level needs.

McGregor makes the point that a command-and-control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs for motivation, but in modern society those needs are mostly satisfied and thus are no longer motivating. In this situation, one would expect employees to dislike their work, avoid responsibility, have no interest in organizational goals, resist change, etc.

As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. Why were U. Two reasons: 1 high-quality products and 2 low prices. The secret to their success was not what they were producing but how they were managing their people—Japanese employees were engaged, empowered, and highly productive. Management professor William Ouchi argued that Western organizations could learn from their Japanese counterparts.

The rationale for the drawn-out time frame is that it helps develop a more dedicated, loyal, and permanent workforce, which benefits the company; the employees, meanwhile, have the opportunity to fully develop their careers at one company.

In other words, employees have a strong desire for affiliation. Another assumption is that workers expect reciprocity and support from the company. Under Theory Z management, not only do workers have a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers, they also develop a sense of order, discipline, and a moral obligation to work hard. Theory Z is not the last word on management, however, as it does have its limitations.

It can be difficult for organizations and employees to make life-time employment commitments. Also, participative decision-making may not always be feasible or successful due to the nature of the work or the willingness of the workers. Answer the question s below to see how well you understand the topics covered above.

This short quiz does not count toward your grade in the class, and you can retake it an unlimited number of times. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to 1 study the previous section further or 2 move on to the next section.

Skip to main content. Chapter Motivating Employees. Search for:. Check Your Understanding Answer the question s below to see how well you understand the topics covered above.

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Theory X and Theory Y

McGregor presented and explained the two theories in what is considered a classic work of management science, his book The Human Side of Enterprise. Theory X and Theory Y represent two basic assumptions about the human capacity for and relationship to work. Theory X hinges on the assumption that humans are inherently work-averse. The workplace is therefore authoritarian in nature, with top-down pressure serving as the primary mechanism of motivation. Under Theory X, employees are assumed to have little ambition and avoid responsibility, preferring a secure, base work environment. Therefore, they require constant supervision and coercion to maintain productivity. Workplaces that follow the Theory X model of management often use continual prodding, strict quotas, the threat of discipline, and rewards for performance to keep productivity at a desired level.

McGregor argued that these assumptions fall into two broad categories - Theory X and Theory Y. These findings were detailed in The. Human Side of Enterprise,​.

Theory X and Theory Y

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Kayode Published Psychology. The main purpose of the study is to discuss the application of theory X and Y in classroom management, by explaining the meaning of motivation, theory X and Y and applying theory X and Y motivation in classroom management.

Managerial Belief Systems: Douglas McGregor’s Theory X vs Theory Y

McGregor's XY Theory of Management

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker.

Work is changing. And the approach to and requirements of leadership are changing with it. The modern manager knows how to distribute responsibility, instill trust in their employees, and motivate team members to deliver their best work and ideas.

Theory X and Theory Y published in the Sage Encyclopedia of Management Theories


Anton R.
26.01.2021 at 06:54 - Reply

PDF | Leadership style and organizational performance have been researched extensively. However, the literature has a limited number of.

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