Malnutrition And Its Causes Pdf

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Malnutrition or malnourishment is a condition that results from eating a diet lacking in nutrients. Malnutrition in children is especially harmful. Malnutrition also leads to poor school performance, which can result in future income reduction.

This topic focuses on undernutrition. See obesity for more information about the main problems associated with overnutrition. Malnutrition is a common health problem.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet which does not supply a healthy amount of one or more nutrients. This includes diets that have too little nutrients or so many that the diet causes health problems. Undernourishment is most often due to a lack of high-quality food which is available to eat. Infectious diseases such as gastroenteritis , pneumonia , malaria , and measles , which increase nutrient requirements, can also cause malnutrition.

What Is Kwashiorkor?

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet which does not supply a healthy amount of one or more nutrients. This includes diets that have too little nutrients or so many that the diet causes health problems. Undernourishment is most often due to a lack of high-quality food which is available to eat. Infectious diseases such as gastroenteritis , pneumonia , malaria , and measles , which increase nutrient requirements, can also cause malnutrition.

Other causes of malnutrition include anorexia nervosa and bariatric surgery. Efforts to improve nutrition are some of the most effective forms of development aid. Some strategies help people buy food within local markets. In the elderly , undernutrition is more commonly due to physical, psychological, and social factors, not a lack of food. Reducing malnutrition is key part of Sustainable Development Goal 2 SDG2 "Zero hunger" with a malnutrition target alongside reducing under nutrition and stunted child growth.

COVID could double the number of people at risk of suffering acute hunger by the end of Unless specifically mentioned otherwise, the term malnutrition refers to undernutrition for the remainder of this article. SAM refers to children with severe acute malnutrition.

MAM refers to moderate acute malnutrition. Malnutrition is caused by eating a diet in which nutrients are not enough or is too much such that it causes health problems. In some developing countries , overnutrition in the form of obesity is beginning to present within the same communities as undernutrition. However, the term malnutrition is commonly used to refer to undernutrition only.

Undernutrition is sometimes used as a synonym of protein—energy malnutrition PEM. The term hypoalimentation means underfeeding. The term "severe malnutrition" or "severe undernutrition" is often used to refer specifically to PEM. Kwashiorkor is mainly caused by inadequate protein intake.

The main symptoms are severe wasting, leaving little or no edema, minimal subcutaneous fat, severe muscle wasting, and non-normal serum albumin levels.

Undernutrition encompasses stunted growth stunting , wasting, and deficiencies of essential vitamins and minerals collectively referred to as micronutrients. The term hunger , which describes a feeling of discomfort from not eating, has been used to describe undernutrition, especially in reference to food insecurity. While it provides a way to compare malnutrition within and between populations, the classification has been criticized for being "arbitrary" and for not considering overweight as a form of malnutrition.

Also, height alone may not be the best indicator of malnutrition; children who are born prematurely may be considered short for their age even if they have good nutrition. John Conrad Waterlow established a new classification for malnutrition. These classifications of malnutrition are commonly used with some modifications by WHO. Malnutrition increases the risk of infection and infectious disease, and moderate malnutrition weakens every part of the immune system.

Lower energy and impaired function of the brain also represent the downward spiral of malnutrition as victims are less able to perform the tasks they need to in order to acquire food, earn an income, or gain an education. Vitamin-deficiency-related diseases such as scurvy and rickets. Hypoglycemia low blood sugar can result from a child not eating for 4 to 6 hours. Hypoglycemia should be considered if there is lethargy, limpness, convulsion, or loss of consciousness. If blood sugar can be measured immediately and quickly, perform a finger or heel stick.

In those with malnutrition some of the signs of dehydration differ. Protein-calorie malnutrition can cause cognitive impairments.

For humans, "critical period varies from the final third of gestation to the first 2 years of life". Folate deficiency has been linked to neural tube defects. Malnutrition in the form of iodine deficiency is "the most common preventable cause of mental impairment worldwide. The most visible and severe effects—disabling goiters, cretinism and dwarfism—affect a tiny minority, usually in mountain villages.

But 16 percent of the world's people have at least mild goiter, a swollen thyroid gland in the neck. Major causes of malnutrition include poverty and food prices, dietary practices and agricultural productivity, with many individual cases being a mixture of several factors.

Clinical malnutrition , such as cachexia , is a major burden also in developed countries. Various scales of analysis also have to be considered in order to determine the sociopolitical causes of malnutrition. For example, the population of a community that is within poor governments, may be at risk if the area lacks health-related services, but on a smaller scale certain households or individuals may be at an even higher risk due to differences in income levels, access to land, or levels of education.

People may become malnourished due to abnormal nutrient loss due to diarrhea or chronic illness affecting the small bowel. A lack of adequate breastfeeding leads to malnutrition in infants and children, associated with the deaths of an estimated one million children annually.

Illegal advertising of breast milk substitutes contributed to malnutrition and continued three decades after its prohibition under the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes. Maternal malnutrition can also factor into the poor health or death of a baby. Over , neonatal deaths have occurred because of deficient growth of the fetus in the mother's womb.

Deriving too much of one's diet from a single source, such as eating almost exclusively corn or rice, can cause malnutrition. This may either be from a lack of education about proper nutrition, or from only having access to a single food source. It is not just the total amount of calories that matters but specific nutritional deficiencies such as vitamin A deficiency , iron deficiency or zinc deficiency can also increase risk of death.

Overnutrition caused by overeating is also a form of malnutrition. In the United States, more than half of all adults are now overweight—a condition that, like hunger, increases susceptibility to disease and disability, reduces worker productivity, and lowers life expectancy.

Many parts of the world have access to a surplus of non-nutritious food, in addition to increased sedentary lifestyles. Yale psychologist Kelly Brownell calls this a " toxic food environment " where fat and sugar laden foods have taken precedence over healthy nutritious foods. The issue in these developed countries is choosing the right kind of food. More fast food is consumed per capita in the United States than in any other country.

The reason for this mass consumption of fast food is its affordability and accessibility. Often fast food, low in cost and nutrition, is high in calories and heavily promoted. When these eating habits are combined with increasingly urbanized, automated, and more sedentary lifestyles, it becomes clear why weight gain is difficult to avoid.

Not only does obesity occur in developed countries, problems are also occurring in developing countries in areas where income is on the rise.

In China, consumption of high-fat foods has increased while consumption of rice and other goods has decreased. In Bangladesh, poor socioeconomic position was associated with chronic malnutrition since it inhibits purchase of nutritious foods such as milk, meat, poultry, and fruits. He states that malnutrition and famine were more related to problems of food distribution and purchasing power. It is argued that commodity speculators are increasing the cost of food.

As the real estate bubble in the United States was collapsing, it is said that trillions of dollars moved to invest in food and primary commodities, causing the — food price crisis. The use of biofuels as a replacement for traditional fuels raises the price of food. Local food shortages can be caused by a lack of arable land, adverse weather, lower farming skills such as crop rotation , or by a lack of technology or resources needed for the higher yields found in modern agriculture , such as fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, machinery and storage facilities.

As a result of widespread poverty, farmers cannot afford or governments cannot provide the resources necessary to improve local yields.

The World Bank and some wealthy donor countries also press nations that depend on aid to cut or eliminate subsidized agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, in the name of free market policies even as the United States and Europe extensively subsidized their own farmers.

There are a number of potential disruptions to global food supply that could cause widespread malnutrition. Global warming is of importance to food security, with 95 percent of all malnourished peoples living in the relatively stable climate region of the sub-tropics and tropics. According to the latest IPCC reports, temperature increases in these regions are "very likely.

For example, the — central Asian drought brought about an 80 percent livestock loss and 50 percent reduction in wheat and barley crops in Iran. An increase in extreme weather such as drought in regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa would have even greater consequences in terms of malnutrition. Even without an increase of extreme weather events, a simple increase in temperature reduces the productivity of many crop species, also decreasing food security in these regions. Colony collapse disorder is a phenomenon where bees die in large numbers.

The effort to bring modern agricultural techniques found in the West, such as nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, to Asia, called the Green Revolution , resulted in increased food production and corresponding decreases in prices and malnutrition similar to those seen earlier in Western nations. This was possible because of existing infrastructure and institutions that are in short supply in Africa, such as a system of roads or public seed companies that made seeds available.

However, after the government changed policy and subsidies for fertilizer and seed were introduced against World Bank strictures, farmers produced record-breaking corn harvests as production leaped to 3. Soy Kunu , a locally sourced and prepared blend consisting of peanut, millet and soya beans may also be used.

New technology in agricultural production also has great potential to combat undernutrition. The World Bank itself claims to be part of the solution to malnutrition, asserting that the best way for countries to succeed in breaking the cycle of poverty and malnutrition is to build export-led economies that will give them the financial means to buy foodstuffs on the world market.

There is a growing realization among aid groups that giving cash or cash vouchers instead of food is a cheaper, faster, and more efficient way to deliver help to the hungry, particularly in areas where food is available but unaffordable. However, for people in a drought living a long way from and with limited access to markets, delivering food may be the most appropriate way to help.

By the time it arrives in the country and gets to people, many will have died. Food banks and soup kitchens address malnutrition in places where people lack money to buy food. A basic income has been proposed as a way to ensure that everyone has enough money to buy food and other basic needs; it is a form of social security in which all citizens or residents of a country regularly receive an unconditional sum of money, either from a government or some other public institution, in addition to any income received from elsewhere.

Ethiopia has been pioneering a program that has now become part of the World Bank's prescribed method for coping with a food crisis and had been seen by aid organizations as a model of how to best help hungry nations.

Through the country's main food assistance program, the Productive Safety Net Program, Ethiopia has been giving rural residents who are chronically short of food, a chance to work for food or cash. Foreign aid organizations like the World Food Program were then able to buy food locally from surplus areas to distribute in areas with a shortage of food.

City residents separate organic waste from their garbage, bag it, and then exchange it for fresh fruit and vegetables from local farmers. As a result, the country's waste is reduced and the urban poor get a steady supply of nutritious food. Restricting population size is a proposed solution.

Thomas Malthus argued that population growth could be controlled by natural disasters and voluntary limits through "moral restraint. According to the World Health Organisation, "Family planning is key to slowing unsustainable population growth and the resulting negative impacts on the economy, environment, and national and regional development efforts".

However, there are many who believe that the world has more than enough resources to sustain its population. Instead, these theorists point to unequal distribution of resources and under- or unutilized arable land as the cause for malnutrition problems.

Malnutrition and Its Implications on Food Security

A healthy diet is a diet that provides balanced nutrients that satisfy the metabolic needs of the body without excess or shortage, and adequate food is at the basis of an active and healthy life. A healthy diet helps to protect against malnutrition in all its forms, as well as noncommunicable diseases NCDs , including such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancer Zimmerman and Snow ; Khan et al. Body mass index BMI is an index of weight-for-height commonly used to classify overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity result from an imbalance between energy consumed too much and energy expended too little. Globally, people are consuming foods and drinks that are more energy-dense high in sugars and fats and engaging in less physical activity Wells and Fewtrell Malnutrition includes undernutrition and overnutrition as well as micronutrient deficiencies Stratton et al. Nutrients are chemical compounds in food that are used by the body to function properly and maintain health.

Malnutrition: quantifying the health impact at national and local levels / Monika authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. associated with the principal causes of child death, i.e. diarrhoea, acute respiratory.

Malnutrition: What you need to know

Malnutrition is a group of conditions in children and adults generally related to poor quality or insufficient quantity of nutrient intake, absorption, or utilization. Wasting and stunting are very different forms of malnutrition. Stunting is chronic and its causative factors are poorly understood. Stunting usually does not pose an immediate threat to life and is relatively common in many populations in less-developed countries. This is not to say that it is unimportant, just less important than wasting in humanitarian emergencies.

How good is your nutritional care? Introduction to Malnutrition. Find out more.

Causes of malnutrition include inappropriate dietary choices, a low income, difficulty obtaining food, and various physical and mental health conditions. Undernutrition is one type of malnutrition. It occurs when the body does not get enough food. It can lead to delayed growth, low weight, or wasting.


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Undernutrition a occurs when people do not eat or absorb enough nutrients to cover their needs for energy and growth, or to maintain a healthy immune system. Micronutrient deficiencies are a sub-category of undernutrition and occur when the body lacks one or more micronutrients e. These deficiencies usually affect growth and immunity but some cause specific clinical conditions such as anaemia iron deficiency , hypothyroidism iodine deficiency or xerophthalmia vitamin A deficiency. Undernutrition is an important underlying cause of illness and death in Africa especially among women and young children — probably contributing to more than half the deaths among underfive year olds 1. In this article we examine the causes and effects of undernutrition at different ages, and give a brief overview of key actions. We hope that this will help you to plan preventive activities and obtain necessary resources.

6.4.1 Immediate causes of malnutrition

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Stephan K.
27.01.2021 at 12:23 - Reply

Nutrition Education in Primary Schools • Vol. 2: The Activities. Preparatory Unit 1 • A good diet. PREPARATORY UNIT 2. MALNUTRITION AND ITS CAUSES.

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