Oracle Rac Concepts And Administration Pdf


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oracle rac concepts and administration pdf

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Learn To:. Install Oracle RAC software. Create cluster databases.

RAC architecture concepts

This chapter includes the following topics:. This section describes the Oracle RAC documentation set. This book also explains how to administer storage and how to use Oracle RAC scalability features to add and delete instances and nodes. This book describes how the Automatic Workload Repository AWR tracks and reports service levels and how you can use service level thresholds and alerts to improve high availability in your Oracle RAC environment. This book also explains how to make your applications highly available by using Oracle Clusterware.

This book also highlights application-specific deployment techniques for online transaction processing and data warehousing environments. Troubleshooting tips such as debugging and log file use and general information about installing and using the Cluster Verification Utility CVU.

How to use the Server Control SRVCTL utility to start and stop the database and instances, to manage configuration information, and to delete or move instances and services. In addition to this book, refer to the platform-specific Oracle Real Application Clusters installation and configuration guide on your product installation media as described under the following heading.

This ensures that your Oracle RAC environment has the optimal network configuration, database structure, and parameter settings for the environment that you selected. Also use the CVU for on-going administrative tasks, such as node addition and node deletion. Enterprise Manager—Oracle recommends that you use Enterprise Manager to perform administrative tasks whenever feasible. You can use multiple disks for both the voting disk and the Oracle Cluster Registry OCR disk to prevent them from becoming single points of failure.

Administer these components as described in Chapter 3, " Administering Oracle Clusterware Components". You also have the option to upgrade ASM independently of your database upgrades. When you perform ASM-related options during installs, upgrades, or other operations, the tool you are using may automatically extend ASM to other nodes in your cluster. In some cases, your current configuration may not be compatible with an ASM activity that you are trying to perform, either explicitly or with an automatic ASM extension to other nodes.

Should you be using DBCA, as described earlier, to build a database using a new Oracle home, and if the ASM version is from an earlier release of the Oracle software but does not exist on all of the nodes you selected for the database, then ASM cannot be extended. These resources are automatically started when Oracle Clusterware starts the node and then automatically restarts them if they stop.

The application level resources are the instances and the Oracle Clusterware background processes that run on each instance. The information that describes the configuration of these components is stored in the Oracle Cluster Registry OCR that you can administer as described in Chapter 3, " Administering Oracle Clusterware Components".

This means that all instances that were part of your installation have an Enterprise Manager Agent running on them. You can configure Enterprise Manager Grid Control on additional hosts, which were not part of your initial Oracle RAC installation, either inside or outside your cluster environment. Enterprise Manager Grid Control enables you to manage multiple cluster databases, cluster database instances, and the hosts on which cluster database components operate. Grid Control enables you to monitor and administer your entire computing environment from one network location.

Use Grid Control to manage all of your enterprise services, including hosts, databases, Listeners, application servers, HTTP Servers, and Web applications, as one cohesive unit. Enterprise Manager Grid Control only requires one Agent on one host in your cluster environment to perform cluster database and instance discovery. Administer database services—Create, configure, start, stop, relocate, obtain status, and so on. Administer storage—Assign undo tablespaces and re-assign them from one instance to another, administer redo log assignments among cluster database instances, and switch archive log modes.

Perform general database activities—Start up and shut down Oracle RAC databases and instances, perform backup and recovery operations, edit server parameter file spfile settings for instances or for entire cluster databases, and so on. To optimally deploy applications on Oracle RAC, remember the following points:. Applications that perform well on single-instance Oracle databases do not require code changes to perform well on Oracle RAC databases.

The same compatibility guidelines that apply to Oracle single-instance databases also apply to Oracle RAC. Cache Fusion enable each instance to locate the most useful version of a block of data for its needs, whether that block resides on disk or in the memory of another instance.

The cluster interconnect provides a fast pathway for Cache Fusion to transfer required blocks of data between instances when necessary. The Oracle features described in this section enhance the performance and simplify the administration of your Oracle RAC environment.

The features discussed in this section are:. Automatic Storage Management ASM simplifies database administration by eliminating the need for you to manage Oracle database files. Instead, ASM enables you to create disk groups that comprise disks and the files that reside on them. Depending on your hardware platform, you can store Oracle homes and Oracle datafiles on a cluster file system. Cluster file systems are simpler to configure and manage than raw device storage.

Cluster file systems also offer scalable, low latency, highly resilient storage that significantly reduces costs. Other storage features include Oracle-managed files, automatic segment-space management, and automatic undo management. Refer to the Oracle database documentation for more information about using storage management features. Oracle Database Administrator's Guide. With Oracle Database 10 g , you can define application workloads as services so that you can individually manage and control them.

You can create a service for each application or for major components within a complex application. Once created, you can define where and when a service runs. Your entire database workload can be separated into a few services, each of which can be managed independently, reducing the need to manage individual users or sessions for many tasks. In an Oracle RAC database, you can use services to maximize the use of your cluster's processing resources.

You can assign each service to one or more instances for normal startup preferred , depending on its processing requirements. Additionally, you can define one or more alternate available instances that a service can use if one of the service's assigned preferred instances becomes unavailable. In both cluster and non-cluster environments, you can track performance metrics by service using the Automatic Workload Repository AWR. You can set thresholds on performance metrics so that your system automatically generates alerts if the thresholds are exceeded.

You can also map services to Resource Manager consumer groups to provide more fine-grained resource allocation controls such as placing limits on CPU consumption.

The settings for Resource Manager are instance specific, that is, you can have different Resource Manager settings on different instances.

Therefore, ensure that your Resource Manager settings are appropriate for the instances on which you are using it. The Automatic Workload Management features of Oracle Database 10 g are integrated with the resource manager. Runtime Connection Load Balancing is used when selecting connections from a connection pool. For connection pools that support services at one instance only, the first available connection in the pool is used.

When connection pools support services that span multiple instances using a policy such as service metrics, Runtime Connection Load Balancing distributes work requests across instances that are adequately serving a service.

This avoids sending work to slow, hung, failed or restricted instances. For connection load balancing, the method for balancing connections across a service uses four metrics: session count by instance, run queue length of the node, goodness by service, and weighted session count by service. The metrics used depend on what goals have been defined for the service and how Oracle Net Services has been configured.

Fast Connection Failover is used to prevent connections being directed to failed nodes or instances. Integrated connection pools will clean up connections when a failure occurs or add additional connections when new instances become available.

This allows the application to be immediately aware of cluster configuration changes and react to them without any programming or configuration changes at the application tier. Oracle Real Application Clusters 10 g introduces a complete, integrated clusterware management solution on all Oracle Database 10 g platforms.

This clusterware functionality provides all of the features required to manage your cluster database including node membership, group services, global resource management, and high availability functions.

You install Oracle Clusterware as a separate install that you can complete independently or as a pre-requisite to the Oracle RAC installation process. Oracle database features such as Oracle 10 g services use the underlying Oracle Clusterware mechanisms to provide their capabilities.

Oracle also continues to support select third-party clusterware products on specified platforms. High availability configurations have redundant hardware and software that maintain operations by avoiding single points-of-failure. During outages, Oracle Clusterware relocates the processing performed by the inoperative component to a backup component. The Oracle recovery processes quickly re-master resources, recover partial or failed transactions, and rapidly restore the system.

You can combine many Oracle products and features to create highly reliable computing environments. Doing this requires capacity and redundancy planning. In addition, consider your overall system costs and your return on investment.

There are also other practical considerations such as selecting the appropriate hardware and deciding whether to use idle machines that are part of your high availability configuration. The connection load balancing feature of Oracle Net Services automatically distributes connections among active instances.

Connection load balancing does this based on the workload of each node and instance in a cluster. A best practice is to configure RMAN so that all instances can access all of the archive log threads throughout your cluster database. In the event of media recovery, the recovering instance requires access to all of the archived redo log threads. You can simplify media recovery administration by ensuring that a recovering instance can access a local copy of the archive log threads from all of the instances in your cluster database.

Oracle Data Guard works with standby databases to protect your data against errors, failures, and corruptions that might otherwise destroy your database. Data Guard protects critical data by automating the creation, management, and monitoring aspects of standby database environments.

Oracle Data Guard automates the otherwise manual process of maintaining a transactional consistent copy of an Oracle database to recover from the loss of or damage to the production database.

Skip Headers. The appendices in this book describe: Troubleshooting tips such as debugging and log file use and general information about installing and using the Cluster Verification Utility CVU The Oracle Clusterware command-line reference The Oracle Cluster Registry command syntax How to use the Server Control SRVCTL utility to start and stop the database and instances, to manage configuration information, and to delete or move instances and services Oracle RAC tools error messages In addition to this book, refer to the platform-specific Oracle Real Application Clusters installation and configuration guide on your product installation media as described under the following heading.

If these documents are available for this release, then they are on your Oracle product installation media. Use Automatic Undo Management. Use Automatic Segment-Space Management. Services in Oracle Database 10 g With Oracle Database 10 g , you can define application workloads as services so that you can individually manage and control them.

The example includes entries from the related files, such as listener, database, and Net Services parameter files, as well as the commands to create and use the services for application management. See Also: Chapter 6, "Introduction to Workload Management" for more detailed information about these features. The Oracle Clusterware and High Availability High availability configurations have redundant hardware and software that maintain operations by avoiding single points-of-failure. Data Guard Oracle Data Guard works with standby databases to protect your data against errors, failures, and corruptions that might otherwise destroy your database.

Book List. Master Index.

Oracle Database 12c RAC Administration D81250GC10.pdf

These instances often run on multiple nodes. From a system point of view, a group of independent servers defines a cluster. These servers are inter-connected and cooperate as a single system. As an Oracle DBA, you know that a standard database runs on a single instance. In the RAC architecture, the concept is different because some components are shared and others are dedicated for each instance. In an Oracle RAC database, each instance must have at least two groups of redo log files. If an instance is down, log file switches by remaining instances can force the idle instance redo logs to be archived.

Oracle RAC Tutorial

This chapter includes the following topics:. This section describes the Oracle RAC documentation set. This book also explains how to administer storage and how to use Oracle RAC scalability features to add and delete instances and nodes.

A cluster is referred to a group of independent, but connected servers that behaves as a single system. RAC or Real Application Cluster is a component of the database product that enables the database to be installed across multiple servers. Oracle RAC uses Oracle Clusterware for the infrastructure to bind multiple servers, so they operate as a single system. Cache function is used to show the storage of the information in the clustered network with the Oracle database. It involves two nodes, one writes the data to the same disk, and other reads the data block from the disk.

This book also describes administrative and deployment topics for Oracle RAC. Information in this manual applies to Oracle RAC as it runs on all platforms unless otherwise noted. In addition, the content of this manual supplements administrative and deployment topics for noncluster Oracle databases that appear in other Oracle documentation.

This course will help you to achieve excellence in this domain. Oracle Real Application clusters allow multiple instances to access a single database , the instances will be running on multiple nodes.

How To Learn Real Application Clusters (RAC) Administration

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This article provides some ideas about how someone new to Real Application Clusters RAC should approach trying to learn about it. These are just ideas, not a definitive guide. Despite what you may believe, many of the issues you face in RAC are the same as those of single instance databases.


Overview of Database In-Memory and Oracle RAC. Overview of Oracle RAC Database Administration configuration guide in HTML and PDF formats.


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This chapter summarizes the configuration requirements and considerations that apply when using Oracle Data Guard with Oracle RAC databases. It contains the following sections:. You can configure a standby database to protect a primary database using Oracle RAC. The following table describes the possible combinations of instances in the primary and standby databases:. In each scenario, each instance of the primary database transmits its redo data to an instance of the standby database. Figure D-1 illustrates an Oracle RAC database with two primary database instances a multi-instance primary database transmitting redo data to a single-instance standby database. In this case, Instance 1 of the primary database archives redo data to local archived redo log files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and transmits the redo data to the standby database destination, while Instance 2 archives redo data to local archived redo log files 32, 33, 34, 35, 36 and transmits the redo data to the same standby database destination.

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Oracle Database 12c RAC Administration D81250GC10.pdf

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