Rf Systems Components And Circuits Handbook PdfBy Isabella B. In and pdf 21.01.2021 at 06:43 5 min read
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When we think of electricity, we naturally think of wires.
- What Is RF and Why Do We Use It?
- Microwave and RF Design: Radio Systems
- RF Circuits and Applications for Practicing Engineers
- RF Systems, Components, and Circuits Handbook
What Is RF and Why Do We Use It?
Today, nearly 2 billion people use mobile phones on a daily basis-not just for their voice services, but for a growing number of social and mobile, data-centric Internet applications. Thanks to the mobile phone and service telecommunications industry revolution, average consumers today not only expect pervasive, ubiquitous mobility, they are demanding it.
But what will the future hold for the consumer RF application space? The answer to that question seems fairly well-defined as the RF industry now finds itself rallying behind a single goal: to realize true convergence. In other words, the future of the RF industry lies in its ability to enable next-generation mobile devices to cross all of the boundaries of the RF spectrum. Essentially then, this converged mobile device would bring together traditionally disparate functionality e.
Again, nowhere is the progress of the converged mobile device more apparent than with the cellular handset. It offers the ideal platform on which RF standards and technologies can converge to deliver a whole host of new functionality and capabilities that, as a society, we may not even yet be able to imagine.
Movement in that direction has already begun. According to analysts with the IDC Worldwide Mobile Phone Tracker service, the converged mobile device market grew an estimated 42 percent in for a total of over 80 million units.
In the fourth quarter alone, vendors shipped a total of That's a fairly remarkable accomplishment considering that, prior to the mid-nineties, the possibility of true RF convergence was thought unreachable. The mixing, sampling and direct-conversion technologies were simply deemed too clunky and limited to provide the foundation necessary for implementation of such a vision.
A capacitor is, after all, a capacitor-isn't it? A 1-megohm resistor presents an impedance of at least 1 megohm-doesn't it? The reactance of an inductor always increases with frequency, right? Well, as we shall see later in this discussion, things aren't always as they seem.
Capacitors at certain frequencies may not be capacitors at all, but may look inductive, while inductors may look like capacitors, and resistors may tend to be a little of both. In this chapter, we will discuss the properties of resistors, capacitors, and inductors at radio frequencies as they relate to circuit design.
But, first, let's take a look at the most simple component of any system and examine its problems at radio frequencies. Wirewound resistors, inductors, and axial-and radial-leaded capacitors all use a wire of some size and length either in their leads, or in the actual body of the component, or both. Wire is also used in many interconnect applications in the lower RF spectrum. The behavior of a wire in the RF spectrum depends to a large extent on the wire's diameter and length.
Table lists, in the American Wire Gauge AWG system, each gauge of wire, its corresponding diameter, and other characteristics of interest to the RF circuit designer. In the AWG system, the diameter of a wire will roughly double every six wire gauges. Thus, if the last six gauges and their corresponding diameters are memorized from the chart, all other wire diameters can be determined without the aid of a chart Example Skin EffectA conductor, at low frequencies, utilizes its entire cross-sectional area as a transport medium for charge carriers.
As the frequency is increased, an increased magnetic field at the center of the conductor presents an impedance to the charge carriers, thus decreasing the current density at the center of the conductor and increasing the current density around its perimeter. This increased current density near the edge of the conductor is known as skin effect. It occurs in all conductors including resistor leads, capacitor leads, and inductor leads.
Thus, different conductors, such as silver, aluminum, and copper, all have different skin depths. The net result of skin effect is an effective decrease in the crosssectional area of the conductor and, therefore, a net increase in the ac resistance of the wire as shown in Fig.
For copper, the skin depth is approximately 0. Straight-Wire InductorsIn the medium surrounding any current-carrying conductor, there exists a magnetic field. If the current in the conductor is an alternating current, this magnetic field is alternately expanding and contracting and, thus, producing a voltage on the wire which opposes any change in current flow.
This opposition to change is called self-inductance and we call anything that possesses this quality an inductor. Straight-wire inductance might seem trivial, but as will be seen later in the chapter, the higher we go in frequency, the more important it becomes.
This is shown in calculations of Example SolutionFrom The concept of inductance is important because any and all conductors at radio frequencies including hookup wire, capacitor leads, etc. Inductors will be discussed in greater detail later in this chapter.
However, very rarely is there any thought given to how a resistor actually behaves once we depart from the world of direct current DC. In some instances, such as in transistor biasing networks, the resistor will still perform its DC circuit function, but it may also disrupt the circuit's RF operating point. Resistor Equivalent CircuitThe equivalent circuit of a resistor at radio frequencies is shown in Fig. R is the resistor value itself, L is the lead inductance, and C is a combination of parasitic capacitances which varies from resistor to resistor depending on the resistor's structure.
Carbon-composition resistors are notoriously poor high-frequency performers. A carbon-composition resistor consists of densely packed dielectric particulates or carbon granules. Between each pair of carbon granules is a very small parasitic capacitor. These parasitics, in aggregate, are not insignificant, however, and are the major component of the device's equivalent circuit. Wirewound resistors have problems at radio frequencies too. As may be expected, these resistors tend to exhibit widely varying impedances over various frequencies.
This is particularly true of the low resistance values in the frequency range of 10 MHz to MHz. The inductor L, shown in the equivalent circuit of Fig. Its value can be calculated using the single-layer air-core inductance approximation formula. This formula is discussed later in this chapter.
Because wirewound resistors look like inductors, their impedances will first increase as the frequency increases. At some frequency F r , however, the inductance L will resonate with the shunt capacitance C , producing an impedance peak. Any further increase in frequency will cause the resistor's impedance to decrease as shown in Fig.
A metal-film resistor seems to exhibit the best characteristics over frequency. Its equivalent circuit is the same as the carbon-composition and wirewound resistor, but the values of the individual parasitic elements in the equivalent circuit decrease. The impedance of a metal-film resistor tends to decrease with frequency above about 10 MHz, as shown in Fig. This is due to the shunt capacitance in the equivalent circuit. At very high frequencies, and with low-value resistors under 50 , lead inductance and skin effect may become noticeable.
The lead inductance produces a resonance peak, as shown for the 5 resistance in Fig. McGraw-Hill Many manufacturers will supply data on resistor behavior at radio frequencies but it can often be misleading. Once you understand the mechanisms involved in resistor behavior, however, it will not matter in what form the data is supplied. Example illustrates that fact. The recent trend in resistor technology has been to eliminate or greatly reduce the stray reactances associated with resistors.
The total stray shunt capacitance C is 0. If the resistor value is 10, ohms, what is its equivalent RF impedance at MHz? SolutionFrom Table , the diameter of No. Therefore, using Equation 1 The combined equivalent circuit for this resistor, at MHz, is shown in Fig. The parasitic capacitance, on the other hand, cannot be neglected.
What we now have, in effect, is a reactance in parallel with a 10, resistance. The magnitude of the combined impedance is: those shown in Fig. They are typically produced on alumina or beryllia substrates and offer very little parasitic reactance at frequencies from DC to 2 GHz. It is important to remember, however, that not all capacitors lend themselves equally well to each of the above-mentioned applications.
The primary task of the RF circuit designer, with regard to capacitors, is to choose the best capacitor for his particular application.
Cost effectiveness is usually a major factor in the selection process and, thus, many trade-offs occur. In this section, we'll take a look at the capacitor's equivalent circuit and we will examine a few of the various types of capacitors used at radio frequencies to see which are best suited for certain applications.
But first, a little review. Parallel-Plate CapacitorA capacitor is any device which consists of two conducting surfaces separated by an insulating material or dielectric. The dielectric is usually ceramic, air, paper, mica, plastic, film, glass, or oil. The capacitance of a capacitor is that property which permits the storage of a charge when a potential difference exists between the conductors.
Capacitance is measured in units of farads. A 1-farad capacitor's potential is raised by 1 volt when it receives a charge of 1 coulomb. However, the farad is much too impractical to work with, so smaller units were devised. In Equation , the area A must be large with respect to the distance d. The dielectric constant is a number that provides a comparison of the given dielectric with air see Fig.
Microwave and RF Design: Radio Systems
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Electromagnetic waves are generated when charged particles that are moving through a conductor experience acceleration. This may seem like a rather dull scientific statement, but engineers have transformed this phenomenon into a means of utterly transforming human life. From the first successful radio transmissions of the s to the sophisticated digital modulation systems of the twenty-first century, wireless communication has been an important and enduring manifestation of our relentless improvements in electronic technology. Furthermore, what was once found primarily in specialized applications has expanded into almost every aspect of our daily lives; radio-frequency communication has truly become an ubiquitous feature of modern society. It is often difficult for us to imagine how people ever survived without cell phones, GPS systems, and wireless Internet access! The analysis and design of radio-frequency RF circuits can be quite complex, and real-life RF devices often behave in ways that are difficult to predict.
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Components, and Circuits Handbook, offers you a comprehensive, one-stop resource on the latest developments, key technologies, and applications of radio frequency RF engineering. Among the numerous updates, the second edition includes brand new chapters on GPS the global positioning system , and an expanded treatment of wireless communications systems. This practical reference helps you design and analyze the performance of RF systems and subsystems, and offers you a solid, broad understanding of the many types of systems and equipment in use today.
PDF | Radio frequency (RF) refers to frequencies between the upper limit of audio frequencies (> 20 KHz) and the lower limit of infrared frequencies (< | Find.
RF Circuits and Applications for Practicing Engineers
The increased popularity and easy operation of RF devices for different end users and corporate applications such as RFID, Bluetooth, Zigbee and Wi-Fi devices and sensors have raised the demand for small power and less off-chip components th The increased popularity and easy operation of RF devices for different end users and corporate applications such as RFID, Bluetooth, Zigbee and Wi-Fi devices and sensors have raised the demand for small power and less off-chip components that tend to achieve integrated circuits with added security and convenience. Concurrent technologies allow the scientists to reinvent low-power, high-performance and reliable RF systems, circuits and components for many home and commercial applications. The features of RF systems, circuits and components are still being researched and integrated in existing systems to create marketable and potential new RF products for more exciting applications.
Interdisciplinarity is essential to RF circuit design. An RF designer is a system designer, an analogue circuit designer, a microwave circuit designer, and a passive and active component designer. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
RF Systems, Components, and Circuits Handbook
Written in English. Components, and Circuits Handbook, offers professionals a comprehensive, one-stop resource on the latest developments, key technologies, and applications of radio frequency RF engineering. This informative but easy writing style enables the knowledgeable reader to not only learn a lot of additional material but also use the text as a Cited by: This extensively revised and updated edition of the Artech House classic, RF Systems. RF systems, components, and circuits handbook. RF systems, components, and circuits handbook, 2d ed. This extensively revised and and circuits handbook book edition of the Artech House classic, RF Systems, Components, and Circuits Handbook, offers you a comprehensive, one-stop resource on the latest developments, key technologies, and applications of radio frequency RF engineering. RF Systems, Components, and Circuits Handbook, Second Edition Clearly written and concise, this book helps you to design and analyze the performance of RF systems and subsystems, and offers you a solid, broad understanding of the many types of systems and equipment in use today.
This comprehensive resource explains the theory of RF circuits and systems and the practice of designing them. The fundamentals for linear and low noise amplifier designs, including the S and noise parameters and their applications in amplifier designs and matching network designs using the Smith chart are covered. Theories of RF power amplifiers and high efficiency power amplifiers are also explained. The underpinnings of wireless communications systems as well as passive components commonly used in RF circuits and measurements are discussed. RF measurement techniques and RF switches are also presented. The book explores stability criteria and the invariant property of lossless networks and includes detailed theoretical treatments. The basic concepts and techniques covered in this book are routinely used in today's engineering practice, especially from the perspective of printed circuit board PCB based RF circuit design and system integration.
Introduction to Communication Systems: Background Information and Terminology. RF Systems, Components, and Circuits Handbook PDF. Alert. Research Feed. Analysis of Frequency Notched UWB Planar Antennas: Determination of.
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