Information Structure And Sentence Form Pdf


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In linguistics , information structure , also called information packaging, describes the way in which information is formally packaged within a sentence. Other structures motivated by information structure include preposing e. The basic notions of information structure are focus , givenness , and topic , [2] as well as their complementary notions of background, newness, and comment respectively. The term information structure is due to Halliday In , Chafe introduced the term information packaging.

What’s the point? The role of punctuation in realising information structure in written English

Metrics details. The main claim of this paper is that punctuation marks, in conjunction with spaces between words, function to provide visual rather than auditory cues for information structure in written English. Information structure is defined here as dividing the flow of discourse into units, each containing a newsworthy element, and in contrast to the Systemic Functional systems of Reference and Theme. A model of how these three systems interact is further supported by evidence from the historical development of reading and modern studies of the process of fluent silent reading. Reading silently does not require physical articulation and so written text is constrained by the saccading eye rather than the need to draw breath. The silent reader uses punctuation marks as a guide in a saccade to focus on the end of a clause which provides a non-arbitrary location for New information. Punctuation has vexed many writers past and present e.

Revue de linguistique, psycholinguistique et informatique. A journal of linguistics, psycholinguistics and computational linguistics. Two visual-world eye-tracking experiments were designed to investigate the resolution of ambiguous German pronouns, the personal pronoun er and the d-pronoun der in spoken discourse. Specifically, the influence of the order of mention and the information status of the antecedent candidates on the resolution preferences following canonical and non-canonical antecedent structures was explored. The results suggest that the two pronominal forms have different coreference functions when they follow canonical topic-comment antecedent structures, in that personal pronouns prefer first-mentioned topical antecedents and d-pronouns second-mentioned non-topical antecedents. However, after non-canonically marked topic-focus antecedent structures, the pronouns had overlapping functions, namely an overall preference towards the second-mentioned focused entity. The findings suggest that pronoun resolution is affected by the information status of the antecedent candidates and that resolution preferences change across antecedent word orders.

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Concentrating on data from Japanese, this paper examines the relationship between topicality and the specificity of indefinites. We argue that in many instances specificity arises when the domain of quantification for an indefinite is both topical and extremely narrow. We also discuss instances where the domain of quantification varies with some other operator, analyzing these in terms of a topical domain function, that is a function given in the context which provides the indefinite with a domain of quantification relative to implicit arguments. Our view builds on two popular ideas about specific indefinites: that they are a kind of presuppositional indefinite and that they are referential elements analyzed via choice functions. Most users should sign in with their email address.

This chapter examines the role of information structure in constructionist approaches. It evaluates the central notions of information structure and how these factors can be incorporated into a Construction Grammar view of mental grammar. The chapter explains that information structure is an important element of sentence grammar because it influences by which construction a particular meaning is expressed and why speakers therefore choose one construction over alternative ones in specific situations. Keywords: information structure , constructionist approaches , Construction Grammar , mental grammar , sentence grammar , meaning. He has published on Finnish historical syntax, cognitive dimensions of the Construction Grammar framework, diachrony and variation in Construction Grammar, nonfinite constructions, word order, analytical causatives, and the syntax of spoken language, Finnish dialect syntax in particular. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Information structure and sentence form: Topic, focus, and the mental representations of discourse referents Journal of Pragmatics,

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It is at this interfacing level of mental representation that linguistic rules and constraints on structure-building, interpretation, and processing interact with general cognitive processes involved in belief formation, such as memory, attention, pragmatic reasoning, and general inference processes. Information structure plays a crucial role in embedding linguistic utterances in ever-changing communicative settings and contexts, and it does so by imposing structure on the ways in which the information conveyed by an utterance is linguistically expressed. A central observation is that linguistically coded information is structured in a specific way, such that it fits the context of the utterance and the knowledge states of the discourse participants. The information structure of linguistic utterances is typically reflected in their grammatical form.

In this comprehensive study, Professor Lambrecht explores the relationship between the structure of sentences and the linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts in which they are used. His analysis is based on the observation that the structure of a sentence reflects a speaker's assumptions about the hearer's state of knowledge and consciousness at the time of the utterance. This relationship between speaker assump- tions and formal sentence structure is governed by rules and conventions of grammar, in a component called "information structure. Lambrecht reveals that each category correlates directly with structural properties of the sentence.

Фонтейн повернулся к окну. - Господи Исусе. Раздался телефонный звонок. Директор резко обернулся. - Должно быть, это Стратмор.

Information structure

Молодой программист приходил когда-то в Нуматек, тогда он только что окончил колледж и искал работу, но Нуматака ему отказал. В том, что этот парень был блестящим программистом, сомнений не возникало, но другие обстоятельства тогда казались более важными. Хотя Япония переживала глубокие перемены, Нуматака оставался человеком старой закалки и жил в соответствии с кодексом менбоко - честь и репутация.

Они лежали на широкой кровати под балдахином в Стоун-Мэнор. О кольце он позаботиться не успел, слова пришли сами. Именно это и нравилось ей в нем - спонтанность решений. Она надолго прижалась губами к его губам.

 А ну с дороги, пидор! - Некое существо с прической, больше всего напоминающей подушечку для иголок, прошествовало мимо, толкнув Беккера в бок. - Хорошенький! - крикнул еще один, сильно дернув его за галстук. - Хочешь со мной переспать? - Теперь на Беккера смотрела юная девица, похожая на персонаж фильма ужасов Рассвет мертвецов.

 Черт возьми! - выругался Бринкерхофф.

Хорошенькая картинка. Беккер застонал и начал выбираться из расписанного краской из баллончиков зала. Он оказался в узком, увешанном зеркалами туннеле, который вел на открытую террасу, уставленную столами и стульями. На террасе тоже было полно панков, но Беккеру она показалась чем-то вроде Шангри-Ла: ночное летнее небо над головой, тихие волны долетающей из зала музыки. Не обращая внимания на устремленные на него любопытные взгляды десятков пар глаз, Беккер шагнул в толпу.

Теперь рука была закинута за голову, следовательно, Хейл лежал на спине. Неужели высвободился. Однако тот не подавал никаких признаков жизни. Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу.

Каждый компьютер в мире, от обычных ПК, продающихся в магазинах торговой сети Радиошэк, и до систем спутникового управления и контроля НАСА, имеет встроенное страховочное приспособление как раз на случай таких ситуаций, называемое отключение из розетки. Полностью отключив электроснабжение, они могли бы остановить работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, а вирус удалить позже, просто заново отформатировав жесткие диски компьютера. В процессе форматирования стирается память машины - информация, программное обеспечение, вирусы, одним словом - все, и в большинстве случаев переформатирование означает потерю тысяч файлов, многих лет труда.

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