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- Corpus Pragmatics and Second Language Pragmatics: A Mutualistic Entente in Theory and Practice
- Pragmatics in Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language
- Pragmatics of Chinese as Native and Target Language
Corpus Pragmatics and Second Language Pragmatics: A Mutualistic Entente in Theory and Practice
He concludes that competing grammars were notpresent; rather a single overall system, albeit with Scandinavian converging upon Low German models. Throughout the collection, the influence of the seminal Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics Sarah Grey Thomason and Terrence Kaufman, Berkeley: University of California Press, can be felt.
One of that book's central tenets is that language change caused by contact is primarily a matter of structural transfer. Adhering too closely to this view has prevented this collection from discussing the level to which the presence of the Low German 'irritant' within the Scandinavian speech community encouraged the intralinguistic development of analytical structures.
This is a small quibble, however; the reader will be impressed more by what has been covered in such a short collection than by what has not. Technical report, 5.
Honolulu : University of Hawai'i, These six data-based studies on the pragmatics of Mandarin Chinese greatly enrich a relatively impoverished field.
Five of the studies focus on Chinese native speakers and strategies they employ in a variety of speech acts. The sixth is unique in its focus not on the native speaker but rather on the learner of Chinese as a second or foreign language. In the study of the nonnative speaker, Gabriele Kasper and Yanyin Zhang present an interviewderived description of the processes whereby the learner of Chinese deals with the complexities of such interculturally complex issues as refusals and expressions of thanks.
Explicit applications for language teaching and learning are provided. Two separate studies by Yanyin Zhang deal with requests. The first one develops a categorization of request strategies and the contextual variables influencing their selection, derived from responses to a production questionnaire.
The second study focuses upon indirect requests. Through the use of two roleplay scenarios, Zhang clearly and compellingly demonstrates that indirectness in Chinese is a discourselevel rather than utterance-based phenomenon. Xing Chen, Lei Ye and Yanyin Zhang present an analysis of Chinese refusals, specifically refusals of requests, suggestions, offers, and invitations. Responses to a production questionnaire with a design based upon variables of relative status, social distance , and initiating act provide the empirical foundation for a categorization scheme with a basic dichotomy between substantive and ritual refusals —the former signalling fundamental noncompliance and the latter utilized as a politeness strategy.
In her study of three types of face-threatening acts, Jinwen Steinberg Du also employs a production questionnaire analytical model, leading to the identification of general strategies for example, 'joking' for giving bad news , with variation based to some degree on goal and relationship. A more general pattern ofChinese face-threatening acts seems to be performance based upon cooperation rather than confrontation.
Perhaps the most surprising work is that of Lei Ye on compliments. The longest and most statistically rigorous study of the six, it provides a solid empirical contradiction to the conventional wisdom that the prototypical response to compliments in Chinese is rejection. What criticism can be levelled at Kasper's volume is primarily of a cosmetic nature, and particularly in the initial pages of the work—somewhat ironically in the one article co-authored by the book's editor.
There is clearly a missing line or perhaps lines at the top ofpages 8 and The same apparent pagination problem produces one line repeated at both the bottom of page 6 and top of page 7 and three lines repeated at the bottom of page 14 and top of page There are as well some smaller technical errors in the placement of tone marks 36, 45 , as well as the occasional omitted character in the appendices In summary, the collection is a valuable resource for more theoretically-oriented applied linguistic researchers while simultaneously helping meet the practical needs of learners and teachers of modern standard Chinese.
Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.
Pragmatics in Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language
The paper focuses on how nonnative teachers of a target language NNTs deal with pragmatics in their classes. It starts with a discussion of what pragmatics entails. Next, issues relating to the teaching of pragmatics are identified, such as the language background of the teacher, comparisons between second- L2 and foreign-language FL instruction, and the potential role of digital media and other means in providing models for pragmatic behavior. Then, an international survey is presented which probed into the experiences of NNTs of various languages while teaching the pragmatics of their language of instruction. A total of teachers were asked to indicate what they taught with regard to pragmatics, 30 native-language teachers NTs and 83 NNTs. They were also asked to report on their experience as teachers of L2 and FL pragmatics e. Since pragmatics is a meeting of language and culture, the teacher respondents were asked to assess their knowledge regarding pragmalinguistics i.
This study focuses on translation shifts in speech act realisation patterns in two English translations of the Chinese work Fusheng Liuji. It employs analytical tools from cross-cultural pragmatics to describe speech act behaviour in the original and its translations. Lin uses more translation shifts—including significant shifts in strategy use, and moderate shifts in information sequencing—than Pratt … Chiang, who mainly retain the original pragmatic features. Both the translators and the original author make frequent use of request formulae. The two translations also show marked shifts from lexical to syntactic modification of requests. Translation shifts have long been a core issue in translation studies. Catford conducted a more systematic study of translation shifts, and proposed two types of shift—level and category shifts.
Achiba, M. Learning to request in a second language: Child interlanguage pragmatics. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Bardovi-Harlig, K. L2 pragmatic awareness: Evidence from the ESL classroom. System, 33,
Pragmatics of Chinese as Native and Target Language
Learners often choose to socialize into local or imagined community practices by aligning with the pragmatic norms of the target language. However, they are known to sometimes elect to depart from what they perceive as typical target community behavior. This phenomenon of pragmatic resistance underscores the centrality of subjectivity in pragmatic language use and development. These studies show that through pragmatic resistance, learners exercise agency and negotiate their translingual subjectivity and multicompetence in the uniquely crafted third space. Learners may not position themselves as fully fledged community members held accountable for adhering to target norms.
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Language learners' requesting behaviour has been the focus of pragmatic research for some time, including that of Chinese EFL learners, who constitute a large proportion of English speakers globally. The present study replicates elements of Wang , focusing on the use of formulaic expressions and exploring the differences between advanced Chinese EFL learners and native speakers of English with regard to the use of request formulae. The study also investigates whether significant exposure to the target language in country is connected to a more native-like use of request formulae. Wang's Discourse Completion Task was adopted to elicit request utterances from three groups of participants: advanced Chinese EFL learners studying in China at home students and in the UK study abroad students , respectively, and native speakers of British English. The findings show that, although in some respects study abroad students in the UK employed request formulae in a more native-like manner compared to at home students in China, neither group showed close approximation to the request behaviour of the native speaker group.
The underlying hypothesis is that to master an L2 a learner needs to adopt a new social, cultural and linguistic identity, and that the difficulty during the process is that the pragmatic features of the L2 do not necessarily match those of the first language henceforth L1. This is the reason why, in the process of L2 learning, speakers may reach the state of pragmatic fossilisation, with a near-to-native grammatical and lexical competence but with a limited range of pragmatic resources Romero-Trillo in J Pragmat —, The present study has three objectives: 1 to describe the theoretical concepts behind the notion of L2 pragmatics with a critical survey of the current literature; 2 to describe how corpus pragmatics has an overarching function in L2 pragmatic development; and 3 to analyse some essential insights of L2 pragmatic development, with particular reference to the role of prosody. The final section will offer suggestions for future research with practical implications for both theoretical and applied linguists. In my opinion, the use of computerised data, the web-as-corpus data Kilgarriff and Grefenstette ; Fletcher ; Biber et al. What is the role of corpora in L2 pragmatics?
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