Air Quality And Health Pdf

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One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans.

Everyone has the right to breathe clean air! Clean air is essential for human health , thriving ecosystems , and a sustainable economy. On most days in Minnesota, our air is clean and healthy for us to breathe.

Air Quality, Atmosphere, and Health is a multidisciplinary journal which, by its very name, illustrates the broad range of work it publishes and which focuses on atmospheric consequences of human activities and their implications for human and ecological health. It offers research papers, critical literature reviews and commentaries, as well as special issues devoted to topical subjects or themes. International in scope, the journal presents papers that inform and stimulate a global readership, as the topic addressed are global in their import. Consequently, we do not encourage submission of papers involving local data that relate to local problems. Unless they demonstrate wide applicability, these are better submitted to national or regional journals.

Air Pollution & Your Health

Metrics details. Outdoor air pollution is a major threat to global public health that needs responsible participation of researchers at all levels. Assessing research output is an important step in highlighting national and international contribution and collaboration in a certain field.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze globally-published literature in outdoor air pollution — related respiratory health. Outdoor air pollution documents related to respiratory health were retrieved from Scopus database. The study period was up to Mapping of author keywords was carried out using VOSviewer 1. Search query yielded documents with an h -index of There was a dramatic increase in the number of publications in the last decade of the study period.

The most frequently encountered author keywords were: air pollution occurrences , asthma occurrences , particulate matter occurrences , and children occurrences.

The United States of America ranked first ; Annual research productivity stratified by income and population size indicated that China ranked first Analysis of regional distribution of publications indicated that the Mediterranean, African, and South-East Asia regions had the least contribution. Harvard University 92; 2. International collaboration was restricted to three regions: Northern America, Europe, and Asia. The top ten preferred journals were in the field of environmental health and respiratory health.

Environmental Health Perspective was the most preferred journal for publishing documents in outdoor pollution in relation to respiratory health. Research on the impact of outdoor air pollution on respiratory health had accelerated lately and is receiving a lot of interest.

Global research networks that include countries with high level of pollution and limited resources are highly needed to create public opinion in favor of minimizing outdoor air pollution and investing in green technologies. Outdoor air pollution is defined as the presence of one or more substances in the atmospheric air at concentrations and duration above the natural limits [ 1 ]. Recently, air pollution with particulate matters PM , especially those with less than 2. Furthermore, WHO reported that in , outdoor air pollution caused around 3 million deaths worldwide and 6.

Air pollution was linked to cancer, respiratory diseases, negative pregnancy outcomes, infertility, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, cognitive decline, and other adverse medical conditions [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ].

The problem of outdoor pollution is not a new one, but the rapid urbanization, particularly in Asia, made the problem of air pollution more visible and its health burden more tangible [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ]. Bibliometric analysis is the application of statistical methods on published literature to analyze publication trends with time and to shed light on influential researchers, countries, and institutions in the field.

In the past decade, at least seven bibliometric studies on air pollution were published [ 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. However, none of the published bibliometric studies have shed light on the air pollution - related respiratory health. Therefore, in the current study, we aim to analyze literature pertaining to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health.

The size of the literature and research productivity in this field is a good indicator of national and international efforts to improve air quality and to decrease the health and economic burden of air pollution. Furthermore, the quality of the air we breathe is the responsibility of everyone including researchers and academics.

This study comes in line with perceived personal responsibility toward better air quality. This study aimed to analyze the documents about outdoor air pollution — related respiratory health. Scopus database was used to retrieve relevant documents because of its advantages over other databases [ 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 ]. The first six steps utilized various keywords and search queries to retrieve the maximum number of documents. Keywords included in search queries were those found in recent relevant systematic reviews [ 6 , 12 , 13 , 29 , 30 ].

The combined result of search queries underwent a filtration process by adding exclusion and limitation components steps 7 — 9. False positive results were minimized by using title search. Therefore, all retrieved documents have the keywords of interest.

Despite that, false positive results need to be searched by reviewing the retrieved documents. The review process was carried out on a sample of documents chosen based on the number of citation. The review process was carried out by the authors W. S and A. J and approved by a third author A. Keywords of the irrelevant documents false positive results were used in the exclusion step. A complete list of irrelevant keywords is written in Additional file 1. The exclusion of false positive results is not enough to confirm the validity of the search strategy.

Therefore, the authors compared two different methods of data collection. In the first one, we collected data regarding research output for each of the most active authors as obtained through the search strategy, whilst in the second one, the research output of each of the most active authors was extracted and reviewed by exploring the author profile as presented by Scopus.

The extent of agreement between the two methods is measured by interclass correlation coefficient using SPSS [ 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ]. In the current study, the interclass correlation was 0. The retrieved data were also sorted based on the number of different country affiliations per article to calculate international collaboration.

Documents with authors from different countries represent international or inter-country collaboration while documents in which all authors have one country affiliation represent intra-country collaboration. It should be emphasized that Scopus has the function which can separate documents with intra or inter — country collaboration. Therefore, the calculation of international collaboration was extracted from data provided by Scopus. It should be emphasized that the bibliometric analysis is not the same as systematic reviews.

In contrast to systematic reviews, bibliometric analysis focuses on quantitative and qualitative aspects of all documents retrieved from one electronic large database. In bibliometric analysis, the investigated research question is the volume of research published, how this volume of literature evolved with time, what major topics were of high interest, and the scientific impact of literature in a particular subject.

However, in systematic reviews, a complete and exhaustive summary of current literature obtained from several electronic databases and relevant to a research question is provided. In bibliometric analysis, only one large and well — known database, such as Scopus, is used. Therefore, the retrieved documents will not include any duplicates. On the other hand, duplicate documents might appear in systematic reviews because several databases are used to retrieve the required documents.

In this study, Hirsch-index h -index was used as a measure of impact of publications [ 36 ]. Hirsch - index is defined as the number of articles n that have received at least n citations [ 36 ]. For VOSviewer mapping of most frequent author keywords, a minimum occurrence of 10 was used as a cut-off point for inclusion of the keyword in mapping analysis. The search strategy yielded documents. The earliest document in this field was published in in American Journal of Epidemiology [ 40 ].

The analysis of the types of documents showed that research articles , The remaining documents ; 9. English , The subject areas of the documents were medicine ; The growth of publications showed a dramatic increase in the past decade. Analysis of author keywords showed that the most frequently encountered author keywords were: air pollution occurrences , asthma occurrences , particulate matter occurrences , and children occurrences Fig.

Further mapping of types of pollutants most commonly encountered in author keywords showed that particulate matter occurrences , ozone occurrences , nitrogen oxide 95 occurrences , PM10 75 occurrences , PM2. Most frequent author keywords encountered in the retrieved documents a and most frequently encountered types of outdoor air pollutants encountered in the retrieved documents b.

Environmental Health Perspective was the most active journal ; 4. The number of different author names who participated in publishing documents was 11,; giving an average of 3. The top active authors were mainly from Western and Northern Europe, particularly from the Netherlands, Italy, and the United Kingdom [ 21 ].

Brunekreef, B. Authors with a minimum productivity of 20 publications were also visualized using network visualization map that showed research networking among active authors Fig. The map showed that active authors with minimum productivity of 20 publications existed in four clusters.

The largest cluster consisted of eight authors dark red color. The second cluster consisted of seven authors green. The third cluster consisted of six authors blue. The fourth cluster consisted of four researchers dark yellow. Authors with minimum productivity of 20 publications who are not shown in the map are usually those who did not exist within a research network that has prominent productivity. Network visualization map of authors with minimum productivity of 20 publications in the studied field and exist within a collaborative research group.

Researchers from 92 different countries contributed to the retrieved documents. Researchers from the USA participated in publishing Researchers from these top ten countries participated in publishing Regional distribution of retrieved documents indicated that the regions of Americas, Europe, and Western pacific had the highest percentage of contribution while Mediterranean, Africa, and South-East Asia regions had the least contribution Fig.

Geographical distribution of published research in outdoor air pollution and respiratory health — Geographical distribution of published research in outdoor air pollution and respiratory health — based on WHO world region. International collaboration in air pollution — related respiratory health showed that there were three clusters.

There was relatively adequate collaboration among countries within each cluster and there was adequate collaboration between countries in the two different clusters Fig.

The first cluster consisted of 9 European countries shown in green color while the second cluster consisted of 9 countries in different regions in the world particularly those in Northern and Southern America, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. The third cluster consisted of one item, India with research connections with countries in both cluster number 1 and 2.

International collaboration among countries in the Mediterranean region, Africa, or Eastern Europe and those in Northern America, Europe, or Asia did not show up in the map. Network visualization map of research collaboration in outdoor air pollution and respiratory health — Table 3 shows the extent and the percentage of intra and inter international country collaboration for the top active countries.

Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review

Air pollution is now the biggest environmental risk for early death, responsible for more than 6 million premature deaths each year from heart attacks, strokes, diabetes and respiratory diseases. Children, the elderly, people with existing diseases, and minority and low-income communities are particularly vulnerable to adverse health outcomes and economic impacts, such as missed work days, from exposure to air pollution. Research suggests that long term exposure to some pollutants increases the risk of emphysema more than smoking a pack of cigarettes a day. And recent studies show air pollution can impact mental health , worker productivity and even stock market performance. What we typically think of as "air pollution" is actually a mixture of small particles, including the below.

Ground-level ozone is formed when volatile organic compounds VOCs and oxides of nitrogen NOx react with the sun's ultraviolet rays. The primary source of VOCs and NOx is mobile sources, including cars, trucks, buses, construction equipment and agricultural equipment. Ground-level ozone reaches its highest level during the afternoon and early evening hours. High levels occur most often during the summer months. It is a strong irritant that can cause constriction of the airways, forcing the respiratory system to work harder in order to provide oxygen. Particulate Matter is a complex mixture that may contain soot, smoke, metals, nitrates, sulfates, dust, water and tire rubber.

Air Quality, Climate & Health

Metrics details. Outdoor air pollution is a major threat to global public health that needs responsible participation of researchers at all levels. Assessing research output is an important step in highlighting national and international contribution and collaboration in a certain field. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze globally-published literature in outdoor air pollution — related respiratory health. Outdoor air pollution documents related to respiratory health were retrieved from Scopus database.

Submit an online complaint. Report a foodborne illness. If you are using an earlier version of Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.

Use these links to find the latest data on air quality — and learn about data collection methods. These toolkits can help you communicate with consumers about public health issues related to air pollution. You can also share this podcast with tips for avoiding the harmful health effects of poor air quality.

Threat of Air Pollution

Она точно знала, что на такой пароль уходит меньше десяти минут. - Должно ведь быть какое-то объяснение. - Оно есть, - кивнул Стратмор.  - Тебя оно не обрадует. - В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ сбой. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ в полном порядке. - Вирус.

Сознание гнало ее вперед, но ноги не слушались. Коммандер. Мгновение спустя она, спотыкаясь, карабкалась вверх по ступенькам, совершенно забыв о таящейся внизу опасности. Она двигалась вслепую, скользя на гладких ступеньках, и скопившаяся влага капала на нее дождем. Ей казалось, что пар буквально выталкивает ее наверх, через аварийный люк. Оказавшись наконец в шифровалке, Сьюзан почувствовала, как на нее волнами накатывает прохладный воздух. Ее белая блузка промокла насквозь и прилипла к телу.

Предмет материализовался как бы ниоткуда, он вылетел из кабинки и ударил убийцу в грудь, из-за чего тот выстрелил раньше времени. Это была сумка Меган. Беккер рванулся. Вобрав голову в плечи, он ударил убийцу всем телом, отшвырнув его на раковину. Со звоном разбилось и покрылось трещинами зеркало. Пистолет упал на пол. Оба противника оказались на полу.

ОНА ОТБРОСИТ АНБ НАЗАД НА ДЕСЯТИЛЕТИЯ. Сьюзан как во сне читала и перечитывала эти строки. Затем дрожащими руками открыла следующее сообщение. ТО: NDAKOTAARA.

В бомбах было разное топливо. В одной урановое, в другой плутониевое. Это два разных элемента.

 Абсурд! - отрезал Джабба.  - Танкадо оставил нам только один выход-признать существование ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Такая возможность .

 Постараюсь, Джабба. Поверь мне, постараюсь изо всех сил. ГЛАВА 52 Клуб Колдун располагался на окраине города, в конце автобусного маршрута 27.

Он знал, что это трюк. Корпорация Нуматек сделала очень крупную ставку на новый алгоритм Танкадо, и теперь кто-то из конкурентов пытается выведать ее величину. - У вас есть ключ? - сказал Нуматака с деланным интересом.

Air Quality Resources for Professionals

В помещении царила атмосфера полного хаоса. Сьюзан завороженно смотрела на захватывающую дух технику.


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