Common Types Of Medication And Their Side Effects Pdf


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24.01.2021 at 03:06
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There are a variety of classes of high blood pressure medications and they include a number of different drugs.

Get the latest information from CDC coronavirus. Information on commonly used drugs with the potential for misuse or addiction can be found here. For drug use trends, see our Trends and Statistics page. People drink to socialize, celebrate, and relax. Why does alcohol cause people to act and feel differently?

Medicines and side effects

A medication also referred to as medicine , pharmaceutical drug , medicinal drug or simply drug is a drug used to diagnose , cure , treat , or prevent disease. Drugs are classified in multiple ways.

One of the key divisions is by level of control , which distinguishes prescription drugs those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician , physician assistant , or qualified nurse from over-the-counter drugs those that consumers can order for themselves. Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis , and biopharmaceuticals , which include recombinant proteins , vaccines , blood products used therapeutically such as IVIG , gene therapy , monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy for instance, stem-cell therapies.

Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration , biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines. Drug discovery and drug development are complex and expensive endeavors undertaken by pharmaceutical companies , academic scientists, and governments. As a result of this complex path from discovery to commercialization, partnering has become a standard practice for advancing drug candidates through development pipelines.

Governments generally regulate what drugs can be marketed, how drugs are marketed , and in some jurisdictions, drug pricing. Controversies have arisen over drug pricing and disposal of used drugs. One of the key classifications is between traditional small molecule drugs; usually derived from chemical synthesis, and biologic medical products ; which include recombinant proteins , vaccines , blood products used therapeutically such as IVIG , gene therapy , and cell therapy for instance, stem cell therapies.

Pharmaceuticals or drugs or medicines are classified in various other groups besides their origin on the basis of pharmacological properties like mode of action and their pharmacological action or activity, [7] such as by chemical properties , mode or route of administration , biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. Pharmaceuticals may also be described as "specialty", independent of other classifications, which is an ill-defined class of drugs that might be difficult to administer, require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and immediately after administration, have particular regulatory requirements restricting their use, and are generally expensive relative to other drugs.

Some anesthetics include benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The main categories of drugs for musculoskeletal disorders are: NSAIDs including COX-2 selective inhibitors , muscle relaxants , neuromuscular drugs, and anticholinesterases.

Antibiotics , sympathomimetics , antihistamines , anticholinergics , NSAIDs , corticosteroids , antiseptics , local anesthetics , antifungals , cerumenolytic. Bronchodilators , antitussives , mucolytics , decongestants , inhaled and systemic corticosteroids , beta2-adrenergic agonists , anticholinergics , mast cell stabilizers , leukotriene antagonists.

Antifungal , alkalinizing agents , quinolones , antibiotics , cholinergics , anticholinergics , antispasmodics , 5-alpha reductase inhibitor , selective alpha-1 blockers , sildenafils , fertility medications. NSAIDs , anticholinergics , haemostatic drugs , antifibrinolytics , Hormone Replacement Therapy HRT , bone regulators, beta-receptor agonists , follicle stimulating hormone , luteinising hormone , LHRH , gamolenic acid , gonadotropin release inhibitor , progestogen , dopamine agonists , oestrogen , prostaglandins , gonadorelin , clomiphene , tamoxifen , diethylstilbestrol.

Emollients , anti-pruritics , antifungals , antiseptics , scabicides , pediculicides , tar products, vitamin A derivatives , vitamin D analogues , keratolytics , abrasives , systemic antibiotics , topical antibiotics , hormones , desloughing agents, exudate absorbents, fibrinolytics , proteolytics , sunscreens , antiperspirants , corticosteroids , immune modulators.

Antibiotics , antifungals , antileprotics , antituberculous drugs , antimalarials , anthelmintics , amoebicides , antivirals , antiprotozoals , probiotics, prebiotics, antitoxins and antivenoms. Vaccines , immunoglobulins , immunosuppressants , interferons , monoclonal antibodies. Tonics, electrolytes and mineral preparations including iron preparations and magnesium preparations , parenteral nutritions , vitamins , anti-obesity drugs , anabolic drugs , haematopoietic drugs, food product drugs.

Cytotoxic drugs , therapeutic antibodies , sex hormones , aromatase inhibitors , somatostatin inhibitors, recombinant interleukins , G-CSF , erythropoietin. A euthanaticum is used for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. Euthanasia is not permitted by law in many countries, and consequently, medicines will not be licensed for this use in those countries.

Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine. There are three major categories of drug administration; enteral via the human gastrointestinal tract , injection , and other dermal , nasal , ophthalmic , otologic , and urogenital.

Oral administration , the most common form of enteral administration, can be performed in various dosage forms including pills , tablets , or capsules , and other routes likewise have various forms.

The drug may contain a single or multiple active ingredients. They can be administered all at once as a bolus , at frequent intervals or continuously.

In the fields of medicine , biotechnology and pharmacology , drug discovery is the process by which new drugs are discovered. Historically, drugs were discovered through identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery.

Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules , natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole organisms to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect in a process known as classical pharmacology. Since sequencing of the human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has become common practice to use high throughput screening of large compounds libraries against isolated biological targets which are hypothesized to be disease-modifying in a process known as reverse pharmacology.

Hits from these screens are then tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy. Even more recently, scientists have been able to understand the shape of biological molecules at the atomic level, and to use that knowledge to design see drug design drug candidates.

Once a compound that fulfills all of these requirements has been identified, it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials. One or more of these steps may, but not necessarily, involve computer-aided drug design. Despite advances in technology and understanding of biological systems, drug discovery is still a lengthy, "expensive, difficult, and inefficient process" with low rate of new therapeutic discovery.

The "final product" of drug discovery is a patent on the potential drug. Small companies have a critical role, often then selling the rights to larger companies that have the resources to run the clinical trials. Drug development is the process of bringing a new drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.

The regulation of drugs varies by jurisdiction. In some countries, such as the United States, they are regulated at the national level by a single agency. In other jurisdictions, they are regulated at the state level, or at both state and national levels by various bodies, as is the case in Australia. The role of therapeutic goods regulation is designed mainly to protect the health and safety of the population.

Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of the regulation. In most jurisdictions, therapeutic goods must be registered before they are allowed to be marketed.

There is usually some degree of restriction of the availability of certain therapeutic goods depending on their risk to consumers. Depending upon the jurisdiction , drugs may be divided into over-the-counter drugs OTC which may be available without special restrictions, and prescription drugs , which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner in accordance with medical guidelines due to the risk of adverse effects and contraindications.

The precise distinction between OTC and prescription depends on the legal jurisdiction. A third category, "behind-the-counter" drugs, is implemented in some jurisdictions.

These do not require a prescription, but must be kept in the dispensary , not visible to the public, and only be sold by a pharmacist or pharmacy technician. Doctors may also prescribe prescription drugs for off-label use — purposes which the drugs were not originally approved for by the regulatory agency. The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals helps guide the referral process between pharmacists and doctors. They publish a lengthy list of chemicals and plants whose trade and consumption where applicable is forbidden.

OTC drugs are sold without restriction as they are considered safe enough that most people will not hurt themselves accidentally by taking it as instructed. Medical errors include overprescription and polypharmacy , misprescription, contraindication and lack of detail in dosage and administrations instructions.

In the definition of a prescription error was studied using a Delphi method conference; the conference was motivated by ambiguity in the what a prescription error and a need to use a uniform definition in studies. In many jurisdictions drug prices are regulated. In Canada, the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board examines drug pricing and determines if a price is excessive or not.

In these circumstances, drug manufacturers must submit a proposed price to the appropriate regulatory agency. Furthermore, "the International Therapeutic Class Comparison Test is responsible for comparing the National Average Transaction Price of the patented drug product under review" [17] different countries that the prices are being compared to are the following: France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States [17].

In the United States, drug costs are unregulated, but instead are the result of negotiations between drug companies and insurance companies. High prices have been attributed to monopolies given to manufacturers by the government and a lack of ability for organizations to negotiate prices.

Despite the enormous advances in science and technology, the number of new blockbuster drugs approved per billion dollars spent has halved every 9 years since Antibiotics first arrived on the medical scene in thanks to Gerhard Domagk; [25] and were coined the "wonder drugs". The introduction of the sulfa drugs led to the mortality rate from pneumonia in the U.

Penicillin, introduced a few years later, provided a broader spectrum of activity compared to sulfa drugs and reduced side effects. Streptomycin, found in , proved to be the first drug effective against the cause of tuberculosis and also came to be the best known of a long series of important antibiotics. A second generation of antibiotics was introduced in the s: aureomycin and chloramphenicol.

Aureomycin was the best known of the second generation. Lithium was discovered in the 19th century for nervous disorders and its possible mood-stabilizing or prophylactic effect; it was cheap and easily produced. As lithium fell out of favor in France, valpromide came into play.

This antibiotic was the origin of the drug that eventually created the mood stabilizer category. Valpromide had distinct psychotrophic effects that were of benefit in both the treatment of acute manic states and in the maintenance treatment of manic depression illness.

Psychotropics can either be sedative or stimulant; sedatives aim at damping down the extremes of behavior. Stimulants aim at restoring normality by increasing tone. Soon arose the notion of a tranquilizer which was quite different from any sedative or stimulant.

The term tranquilizer took over the notions of sedatives and became the dominant term in the West through the s. In Japan, during this time, the term tranquilizer produced the notion of a psyche-stabilizer and the term mood stabilizer vanished. Premarin conjugated estrogens, introduced in and Prempro a combination estrogen-progestin pill, introduced in dominated the hormone replacement therapy HRT during the s.

HRT is not a life-saving drug, nor does it cure any disease. HRT has been prescribed to improve one's quality of life. Doctors prescribe estrogen for their older female patients both to treat short-term menopausal symptoms and to prevent long-term diseases. In the s and early s, more and more physicians began to prescribe estrogen for their female patients. The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved by FDA in Oral contraceptives inhibit ovulation and so prevent conception.

Enovid was known to be much more effective than alternatives including the condom and the diaphragm. As early as , oral contraceptives were available in several different strengths by every manufacturer. In the s and s, an increasing number of options arose including, most recently, a new delivery system for the oral contraceptive via a transdermal patch. In , a new version of the Pill was introduced, known as the "biphasic" pill.

By , a new triphasic pill was approved. Physicians began to think of the Pill as an excellent means of birth control for young women. Stimulants such as Ritalin methylphenidate came to be pervasive tools for behavior management and modification in young children. Ritalin was first marketed in for narcolepsy; its potential users were middle-aged and the elderly.

It wasn't until some time in the s along with hyperactivity in children that Ritalin came onto the market. Consumption of methylphenidate in the U.

Drug Classes

A drug class is a term used to describe medications that are grouped together because of their similarity. Based on these diverse classification methods, some drugs may be grouped together under one system but not another. In other cases, a drug may have multiple uses or actions such as the drug finasteride, which is used to treat an enlarged prostate or to regrow hair and may be included in multiple drug classes within a single classification system. This doesn't even take into account the drugs that are used off-label for reasons other than what they were approved. A prime example is levothyroxine which is approved to treat hypothyroidism low thyroid function but is often used off-label to treat depression. Because of the diverse methods of classification, consumers can often be confused when their doctor calls a drug an ACE inhibitor, their pharmacist calls it an antihypertensive, and they read online that it is a vasoconstrictor.

Types of medicines

We live in a world where incredible drugs exist to treat many conditions that seemed untouchable in the past. In a report that looked at U. However, the impressive availability of medications also increases the possibility of drug interactions. This can cause the medication to be less or more potent than intended or result in unexpected side effects.

Taking blood thinners and prescription painkillers such as opioids can have potentially life-threatening complications. But many medications — even over-the-counter drugs — have the potential for dangerous side effects. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors — such as captopril Capoten , lisinopril Prinivil , and ramipril Altace — are prescribed to lower high blood pressure. The drugs help the body produce less angiotensin, a chemical that narrows blood vessels.

5 common medications that can have serious side effects

Most psychotropic medications are tablets or capsules you swallow every day. Some are available as syrups or injections. For complete details on all medications currently approved for use in Australia, see NPS Medicinewise. More on antidepressants. They help with hallucinations and delusions, anxiety, agitation and problems with mood, thinking and socialising.

A medication also referred to as medicine , pharmaceutical drug , medicinal drug or simply drug is a drug used to diagnose , cure , treat , or prevent disease. Drugs are classified in multiple ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control , which distinguishes prescription drugs those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician , physician assistant , or qualified nurse from over-the-counter drugs those that consumers can order for themselves. Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis , and biopharmaceuticals , which include recombinant proteins , vaccines , blood products used therapeutically such as IVIG , gene therapy , monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy for instance, stem-cell therapies. Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration , biological system affected, or therapeutic effects.

Medication

3 Comments

Venus H.
25.01.2021 at 19:08 - Reply

such as statins, their adverse effects and methods to improve their bioavailability. The fifth chapter is devoted to the description of the pathogenesis and types of.

Yrko S.
28.01.2021 at 06:58 - Reply

Some examples of complementary medicines that can cause side effects include: echinacea – more than 20 different types of reactions have.

Ganelon D.
01.02.2021 at 18:30 - Reply

A medication may have several types of effects on your body: Desired side effects. Side effects are the symptoms that result from a normal dose of a medication. Ask if there is a certain time of day that the blood sample should be taken.

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