Toni Morrison Critical And Theoretical Approaches PdfBy Angelette T. In and pdf 24.01.2021 at 09:17 10 min read
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- Toni Morrison : critical and theoretical approaches
- WORKS CITED
- James Baldwin and Toni Morrison: Comparative Critical and Theoretical Essays
Revised Edition. Lovalerie King and Lynn Orilla Scott.
Toni Morrison : critical and theoretical approaches
For advocates of an African-American aesthetics the Black maternal narrative, the question of the relation between orality and text, Morrison's rewriting of Black history, the role of subjective and collective memory all figure large.
At the same time, not always in plain contradiction to it, the text is read by a new generation of "postmodern" Black critics in conjunction with what I will loosely term "poststructuralist" theory, and proves extremely successful in that respect. Thus Beloved, the fictional text, has become an instance of Morrison's by now also theoretically formulated claim: "My project is an effort to avert the critical gaze from the racial object to the racial subject; from the described and imagined to the describers and imaginers; from the serving to the served.
Beloved's "This was not a story to pass on" is, thus, not a verdict against memory, but an acknowledgement — reminiscent of Adorno's admonition that there could be no poetry after Auschwitz — that history can be well beyond our language's "connotive, denotive and textual powers.
Memory, breaking out — being set free by Morrison — of Sethe's body, will write generations of Black women's "insides": it traverses and disrupts the symbolic ground, engaging the inscription of slavery on the very flesh and bodies of Black people, specifically Black women and the various counter-discourses against that inscription. In the realm of the surrealistic, the phantastic plot of Beloved's return and redemption creates the space needed to tell Sethe's and her lover Paul D's stories in horrifying mimesis, that constantly begs the question however, if and how what was experienced could at all be said.
The novel's plot and Sethe's story that Beloved's presence will make her tell fragment by fragment, are at war within the text. Those fragments will not yield closure as long as Sethe tries to repress her haunting memories. However, Morrison does not shy away from "writing the body" — she has Sethe painfully encircle and finally recount the why and how of her terrible act of mother-love.
Effectively, this strategy calls into question the symbolic assumptions for Black women's bodies in the "humanist tradition", their annihilation to "flesh value" on the chattel-market, as well as their erasure from founding American mythologies.
My point here is that Beloved, by way of an elaborate, if quite indirect, intertextuality should also be seen to signify on poststructuralist theoretical approaches to text and writing. In the same manner that Cixous' use of the Freudian "dark continent" as metaphor for women has served to obscure Black women's material and textualized existence in most of white feminist theory, "writing the female body" has become a catch-all to precisely avoid deciphering different historical inscriptions of and on women's bodies.
A woman's body, with its thousand and one thresholds of ardor — once, by smashing yokes and censors, she lets it articulate the profusion of meanings that run through it in every direction — will make the old singlegrooved mother tongue reverberate with more than one language.
Cixous, , The literal marks on African slave women's bodies have become marks of a literate text, signing the narrative with scars, as it were, both as utterly obvious as incomprehensible. If a woman is written down as animal, as schoolteacher tells his nephews to do , her body written upon with branding iron, what will be written out of this body will necessarily question the status of Cixous' metaphor as literary theory of universal claim for women's textual production.
Beloved finally speaks in the tongues of generations of captive and tortured Black women: the body speaks outside time, beyond telos, throwing itself up against our perception. The female bodies in question here, however, are excessively referential; and the gift they have to put in circulation another one of Cixous' founding terms is not one of a Medusa's blissful textual subversion, but the "writing back" of women for whom ownership of the self and the body was a markedly material, visceral, literal urgency.
Without words in the doing, without words for describing or conceptualizing by the doer: "And then no words. No words at all. Whereas Derrida speaks of the "overabundance" of the signifier Derrida, , Morrison seems to insist on a refusal of the signifier, as if to beg the question if the "overwhelming" of signification cannot ever be arrested, by the materiality of certain acts, by the unethical implications of oppression, and by resistance to it, however "senseless" Derrida, , 7.
Consequently, one could argue that, surpassing even Cixous, the speaking body not only writes, but also enables Sethe and us to read those textual traces differently. Turned towards the lost or impossible presence of the absent origin, this structuralist thematic of broken immediacy is therefore the saddened, negative, nostalgic, guilty, Rousseauistic side of the thinking of play whose other side would be the Nietzschean affirmation, that is the joyous affirmation of the play of the world and of the innocence of becoming, the affirmation of a world of signs without fault, without truth, and without origin which is offered to an active interpretation.
This affirmation then determines the non-center otherwise than as loss of the center. And it plays without security. For there is sure play: that which is limited to the substitution of given and existing, present, pieces. In absolute chance, affirmation also surrenders itself to genetic indetermination, to the seminal adventure of the trace.
Derrida, , Second, can we imagine a kind of sign that traces something other than its own materiality, that could, for example, refer to the visceral enaction and perception of pain that is not always already caught in teleological Systems of signification like "humanism'" that has in fact been left unsignified by those systems? Finally, shouldn't texts like Beloved be seen to bound or frustrate Derrida's trust in, and thrust of, language as play, adventure, and innocent becoming?
Letting loose the women's hollering to redeem Sethe, the text aims at questioning "our" entire metahistory in two small, almost invisible sentences: "In the beginning there were no words. In the beginning was the sound, and they all knew what that sound sounded like" Historically, logocentric systems of words have been written over and across glaring but suppressed signs that Morrison's novel re-invents for us, to rescue a semiosis that could break the nominative and legislative power of the law of the symbolic, that is Beloved's "back of words.
Morrison intrudes upon this lack with a semiosis that undermines any complacent possession of the novel on the level of humanist discourse, as the back cover claims: by "an entire nation with a past of both abominable and ennobling circumstance.
Accordingly, "marked" 61 Negroes, themselves having become "signs of grief" 66 , don't speak, use words, that is, "because the whites didn't bear speaking on" 52, In Beloved's semiotic universe, words have to be "garbled and tricked" to the Blacks' own purpose to "beat it and get through" , or, time and again, "no words" can be used at all. And even though Baby Suggs knows that it is only in words, with language, that she will be able to communicate the grace she is after purposefully, to "[offer] up to them her great big heart" 88 those words will have to be verified by dance and music, and her speech is obsessed with the desire to anchor itself in support of black bodies' needs, wants and rights 88, The novel's insistence on a representation of black, crucially female bodies foregrounds instead, again and again, those bodies' claims to a self-reversal: from functioning as signs, marks or traces whose merely negative power lies in a denial of the symbolic, to authorship, thus incorporating those absent traces into a symbolic that has — far into the reaches of critical theory — perpetuated itself at the very cost of their suppression.
Derrida, Jacques. Gayatri G. Spivak Of Grammatology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Alan Bass, Writing and Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Blau Du Plessis, Rachel. The Pink Guitar. New York, London: Routledge, Henderson, Mae. Race, Sex and Nationality in the Modern Text.
Hortense Spillers. Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press, Knopf All subsequent quotes will be taken from this edition and given in parentheses in the text. Last year she taught American Studies at the University of Hannover. Currently she is completing her second book for the "Habilitation", provisionally entitled White Amnesia? White American Women's Writing and History.
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Language Editing Service. This article aims to elaborate the relationship between migration and mental health problems that are evident in migrant women in Toni Morrison's Jazz To this end, pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress factors are identified in the novel based on Danish Bhugra's theory of migration. It seems that pre-migration stress factors and traumas are associated with the push theory of migration, while post-migration stresses are associated with the pull theory of migration. Despite post-migration stresses, the main female characters who encounter pre-migration stress factors and traumas are more likely to develop mental health problems like Post-traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD.
In book: The Cambridge Companion to Toni Morrison (pp) points of Morrison's critical theory, then an investigation of its theoretical background, and The author reviews several fat studies approaches, traces their.
James Baldwin and Toni Morrison: Comparative Critical and Theoretical Essays
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King and Scott set out to explore in considerable depth one of the most fascinating and understudied connections in African American literature, that between James Baldwin and Toni Morrison. This collection is useful and necessary. Skerrett, Jr.
От изумления у Джаббы глаза вылезли на лоб. Похоже, она от меня не отвяжется. И он решил не реагировать на сообщение. ГЛАВА 79 Стратмор спрятал пейджер в карман и, посмотрев в сторону Третьего узла, протянул руку, чтобы вести Сьюзан за. - Пошли.
О… понимаю. Прошу прощения. Кто-то записал его, и я подумал, что это гостиница. Я здесь проездом, из Бургоса. Прошу прощения за беспокойство, доброй вам но… - Espere.
Мне даже не сказали, что вы придете. Беккер поспешил переменить тему: - У вас на голове огромная шишка. Больно.
У нее даже перехватило дыхание. Почему. Сьюзан охватила паника. Она быстро проверила отчет программы в поисках команды, которая могла отозвать Следопыта, но ничего не обнаружила.
Вероятно, Цифровая крепость - это стандартный алгоритм для общего пользования, тем не менее эти компании не смогут его вскрыть. - Это блистательная рекламная операция, - сказал Стратмор. - Только подумай - все виды пуленепробиваемого стекла непроницаемы для пуль, но если компания предлагает вам попробовать пробить ее стекло, все хотят это сделать. - И японцы действительно верят, что Цифровая крепость - это нечто особенное.
Она подумала, не ошиблась ли где-то. Начала просматривать длинные строки символов на экране, пытаясь найти то, что вызвало задержку. Хейл посматривал на нее с самодовольным видом. - Слушай, я хотел спросить, - заговорил. - Что ты думаешь об этом не поддающемся взлому алгоритме, который, по словам Танкадо, он хотел создать.
Побледневший кардинал показал рукой на занавешенную стену слева от. Там была потайная дверь, которую он установил три года. Дверь вела прямо во двор.
Почему же не открывается дверца. Вглядевшись, она как в тумане увидела еще одну панель с буквами алфавита от А до Z и тут же вспомнила, что нужно ввести шифр. Клубы дыма начали вытекать из треснувших оконных рам. Сьюзан в отчаянии колотила в дверную панель, но все было бесполезно. Шифр, подумала .