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- Art Myth Ancient Greece by Thomas Carpenter
- Art and Myth in Ancient Greece
- Art and Myth in Ancient Greece a Handbook by Carpenter Thomas H
It is a tricky business attempting to classify women in the ancient Greek world. On the one hand, Greek historical sources nearly ignore them altogether, while literary sources such as epics and tragedies provide a few well-established types: the devoted wife Penelope , the unbalanced foreigner Medea , the promiscuous and deceitful goddesses Calypso, Circe, Aphrodite , and the treacherous and deadly monsters Medusa, Sirens , to name a few. Much less frequently mentioned and perhaps less interesting are the mortal females who lived appropriate lives within the physical and social confines of the ancient Greek world. These are the women who lived mostly in seclusion in their family home until, probably around the age of sixteen to eighteen, they married and made the important transition from girl to woman, wife and mother. Unable to display preview.
Art Myth Ancient Greece by Thomas Carpenter
From the earliest extant work of figurative art pro- duced in the so-called Dark Ages, the terracotta centaur from Lefkandi At about the time that the Parthenon was nearing completion, an Athe- nian vase painter whom we call the Codrus Painter decorated a wine cup, inside and out, with seven deeds of the local hero Theseus Fig- ure 3.
In the central tondo the hero is shown in his most readily rec- ca. Encircling the tondo marble Laocoon ca. Although Greek artists shared this cliff, drives the Marathonian bull to Athens, binds Sinis to his pine tree, interest in mythological narrative with poets, they did not illustrate and slays the sow in spite of the protests of its aged mistress Crommyo. So, for instance, the male figures are all "hero- medium.
That said, Greek narrative art displays an amazing degree of ically" nude, although as a traveler Theseus might be expected to wear imagination, ingenuity, and originality that continues to fascinate today, a tunic, cloak, and traveling cap.
His human opponents are portrayed as it must have engaged viewers in antiquity. They Numerous books, not to mention multivolume lexica, have been are shown in compromised poses falling, legs splayed and gesturing devoted to the subject of myth in Greek art. Therefore, this chapter will examine two specific concerns however, as one of the gnorismata tokens of the hero it is his most of Greek painters and sculptors when faced with the challenge of nar- significant identifYing attribute.
There are few elements of setting, only rating in visual, as opposed to literary, terms a specific story involving those necessitated by the scene: Sciron's rock, the pine tree ofSinis, and gods, heroes, or fantastic creatures. First, what devices did the artist perhaps the old woman as a local personification of Crommyon. Ancient viewers would about?
Second, how did the artist make his chosen theme relevant to a have noticed that some of Theseus' deeds resembled those of the great particular audience at a specific point in time? So it seems the artist has given these two deeds special human opponents. Theseus also bears a club, the traditional weapon of prominence in the axis perpendicular to the handles because they refer- Heracles, as he drives the bull to Athens. Later texts claim he obtained it ence locations in Attica closely associated with the defeat of the Persians.
A more subtle reference to Heracles can be subtle references to Salamis and Marathon, this cycle cup does much found in the tondo where, instead of slaying the Minotaur as in earlier more than recount some of the deeds of the hero Theseus; it rewrites images, Theseus is shown dragging the monster from a Doric porch- history by associating Athens' glorious Bronze-Age hero with its glori- like structure; the meander pattern to the right alerts the viewer to ous present.
For the Athenians their myths were their history, and they the concept of the labyrinth. This rare composition deliberately recalls saw no problem in embellishing them for the greater glory of the polis. They too should perform heroic deeds for the good of their attained immortality. The There was nothing radically new in the depiction of these deeds, calculated poses of Theseus may have recalled to the symposiasts the which had been part of the vase painters' repertoire since ca.
Given the date have impressed viewers of this vase is the startling visual device where of this vase, its depiction of the hero Theseus served as a role model the figures appear in exactly the same location inside and out, as if one for Athenian youth at the beginning of a new military challenge to the were seeing through the walls of the cup. Only in the Sciron and sow democratic polis, that of the recently begun Peloponnesian Wars.
Thus episodes is Theseus' pose reversed from back interior to front exterior the Codrus Painter not only invented a new referential form of imagery so that he can maintain the weapon in his right hand.
Why would the for the myth of Theseus, but also devised a compositional format that artist go to such pains to echo the pose, placement, and action of the placed the hero in a position to serve as an example for contemporary hero inside and out? Is it simply an artistic conceit or does it convey a viewers in late fifth-century Athens. It has long been recognized by scholars When did this sophisticated visual language of myth begin and that Theseus here takes on the poses of the famous sculptural group set how did it evolve?
When did artists incorporate allusions to recent events up in the Agora in BC, namely the Tyrannicides by the sculptors in mythological narratives to reinforce their message? What roles did the Kritios and Nesiotes Figure 4.
With his cloak draped over his extended depictions of Greek myth in media ranging from minutely carved gems left arm Theseus not only is defending himself from the tusks of the to vast temple pediments play in society? Because of the great losses sow, but also is mimicking the older tyrant-slayer Aristogeiton; and with from antiquity, such as most monumental paintings, these questions are Sciron's foot basin raised overhead he takes on the undefended pose of not easy to answer.
But by starting at the beginning we can perhaps trace the younger Harmodios. Ironically to us the future king of Athens is a likely scenario for how a work of art as multivalent as the Theseus cup portrayed as a freedom fighter, a hero of the early democracy.
Further political references could be seen in the episodes placed directly above Cercyon and below bull the Minotaur-slaying. The former took place at Eleusis, the latter at Marathon. At the earlier battle of Marathon Theseus was said to have In the first two centuries of Greek art BC , the figurative arisen from the ground to aid his fellow Athenians.
With this basic toolkit the artist could create archaic Greek sculpture and painting may indicate heroic or divine sta- super- or subhuman creatures of myth by devising imaginative combi- tus, but are too generic to be decisive for identification. Old-fashioned nations. Thus, for instance, attaching a horse's hindquarters to a human conveyances such as the chariot or types of armor such as the Dipylon resulted in a creature that combined the powers of human intelligence shield as in the hold of the ship in Figure 5 presumably were not used and equine strength- making it an equal opponent Nessus as well as in battle in historic times, but whether they allude to the Homeric past a tutor and friend Chiron, Pholus of gods and heroes.
In precanonical is an issue that has not been satisfactorily resolved. It is the Minotaur. To create a daemon of subhuman intelligence the father Anchises moves to the right. Wings were added to scape are minimal, 11 and temporal indicators are almost nonexistent. A female with wings could be either a goddess potnia action, for example, the slaying of the monster or the heat of battle, theron, Iris, Nike or a monster, if given an ugly or leering frontal face rather than episodes taking place before or after the main event.
In Harpy, Fury, Medusa. Fish tails added to human torsos resulted in order to represent two events in any particular narrative, an artist nlight fantastic marine creatures such as Triton or Skylla. Finally, perhaps only conflate two scenes such as King Priam being killed at the altar and his the Greeks would invent a semidivine being that was both male and grandson Astyanax being hurled from the walls of Troy Figure 6.
In female, Hermaphroditus. Dual- and to death. This same schema was adapted to a more comic con- formidable opponents of heroes, as are multiheaded dogs Cerberus, text in which Heracles likewise slays a king Busiris at an altar, holding 12 Orthus , snakes Hydra , and hybrids Chimera. Many mythological another Egyptian upside down by the ankle.
Hecate could be depicted either illustrated by a large red-figure skyphos painted about the same time as as a normal woman or as a triple-bodied divinity. Most of the canonical the Theseus cup, ca.
The figures ued relatively unchanged throughout classical art and well beyond. The music-making satyr is also smaller, either because the frontal face, and size as an indicator of status.
Until specific attributes he is an attendant, like the girl fanning Hera, or on account of his or inscribed names are included in narrative scenes, we cannot always be younger age which, however, is not consistent with his balding head. Paris and Helen? Jason and Medea? Long friezes are the most suitable formats no sign of the prize-bride Aphrodite , nor is there any indication of for multiftgured narratives such as the divine procession to the wedding setting.
Dionysus is the key player here and he is appropriately placed reception of Peleus and Thetis painted on several early sixth-century in the center of the composition on a large wine vessel. Attic vases, or the gigantomachy that is carved in low relief on the A depiction of this same myth on a vase painted a mere ten years Treasury of the Siphnians at Delphi ca. In both of under the influence of monumental wall painting. The body of a volute- these multiftgured reliefs, the gods and giants are labeled for the sake of crater by Polion Figure 8 depicts the same scene, but with the figures the viewer, who might otherwise have trouble distinguishing individual scattered over the surface, and with hints of landscape in the form of combatants.
Hera is relegated ftculty depicting, we can come closer to understanding the relationship to the upper left corner, seated frontally to indicate her helplessness, of myth to art and life. Although a favorite topos of Greek myth, the act 6 and her fan-waving attendant is now a siren with arms. Much of the of metamorphosis is especially challenging for any artist.
Reflecting the composition and style of major painting, this vase Greek art until the later fourth century on the sculpted frieze of the shows how artists could combine the temporal and spatial aspects of Lysicrates monument in Athens, and Actaeon's conversion into a stag a specific episode within a larger format. It also demonstrates how a is simply a matter of attaching horns to his head, enough to impel his vase-painter could transpose the setting of an age-old myth: instead of hunting dogs to attack him.
Artists succeed better at the metamorphosis an equestrian procession it has become a symposium with cushions, of Odysseus' companions into swine by the magician Circe, for they music, and Dionysus featured in the role of the symposiarch.
Such a can revert to the time-honored tradition of tacking animal heads onto 17 scene is particularly appropriate to the shape of the vase, a wine crater, human bodies to create ftgures of subhuman intelligence. The mul- which served as the centerpiece of the symposium. The running figure tiple transformations of Thetis in her wrestling match with her suitor of a satyr who holds the smith god's tongs and lights his way with a Peleus can be symbolized by a lion atop her shoulder, a simple but legible torch may have suggested to the painter the ritual torch-race held at the solution to the problem of representing corporeal change.
Differenti- Hephaisteia in Athens, for he has represented this event on the neck of ating between different states of consciousness such as sleep and death the vase. Hence this mythological narrative on a symposium vessel like was also a challenge, and so winged male personifications could repre- Theseus on the cycle cup, Figure 3 can reference aspects of the real life sent these altered states.
Hypnos is much more common and is often of its users, their drinking parties and their festivals. So, for instance, a vase painter personify abstract concepts even carries over into inanimate objects that portrays the birth ofAthena as a tiny doll-like goddess emerging from the could easily be represented concretely. A case in point is the elixir of head of a large enthroned god flanked by as many standing attendants as immortality that is offered by Athena to one of the Seven who marched fill the available space.
For a sculptor decorating a temple pediment, the against Thebes, Tydeus. While in Etruscan art it is depicted as a jug small goddess would be invisible from below. Thus, on the Parthenon's held by Athena, the Attic vase painter invents a personiftcation labeled east pediment, Athena is depicted full-sized standing beside her father, Athanasia, a young girl whom the goddess leads by the hand to the 1 flanked by Olympians in various poses to fit the raking angles of the mortally wounded warrior.
In the small corners are Helios rising and Selene descending, who together symbolize both the setting the heavens and the time be depicted in art. While fairly common in Greek myth, portrayals of dawn. Round fields such as those of gems, coins, and cup interiors human sacriftce are a rarity.
As in depictions of animal sacriftce, the few usually restrict the protagonists to one or two figures, while square images of the sacriftce oflphigeneia show her being led to the altar, not the cutting of her throat. By contrast, other found in central Italy. Likewise, the dismemberment ofPentheus by his heroes such as Theseus, Perseus, and Bellerophon have only one claim mother and her bacchic companions was not a common subject.
When to fame in the art of this period- the conquest of a monster Minotaur, it came to depicting physical deformities, the Greek artist was clearly at Medusa, Chimera. The labors, deeds, and parerga of the hero fit a vari- a loss or unwilling to render the human body in a less than ideal form.
According to the of his blinding.
Art and Myth in Ancient Greece
The art created in Greece during the fifth century B. Indeed, the word "classical," when used either specifically or figuratively, usually refers to those ideals of beauty and proportion developed on the Greek mainland more than four hundred years before the birth of Christ. Copied by the Romans, who revered the art of their Greek subjects, and "rediscovered" during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in what came to be known as a "renaissance" or rebirth of classical culture, the works bequeathed us by the Greeks—or in many instances by their Roman imitators—still influence the art we make and the ideals by which we judge it. Although the art of the ancient Greeks may be said to have reached its apogee in Athens in the fifth century B. The Greeks settled and traded over a wide area, and eventually, under Alexander the Great, they moved into the Near East as conquerors. Thus they were able to assimilate and transform the art of many indigenous cultures.
Art and myth in ancient Greece: a handbook / Thomas H. Carpenter. Book; Book/Illustrated - Cover for Art and myth in ancient Greece: a handbook.
Art and Myth in Ancient Greece a Handbook by Carpenter Thomas H
Published by Thames and Hudson in London. Written in English. Report of the Committee of Elections, to whom was recommitted the petition of Mathew Lyon, of the state of Vermont. Correspondence relating to the war with Spain and conditions growing out of the same. Art and Myth in Ancient Greece.
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The first surviving reference to him is in Homer 's Iliad , which some scholars theorize was composed by bards and sung in the late 9th or 8th century BC. Prophecies link Troilus' fate to that of Troy and so he is ambushed and murdered by Achilles. Sophocles was one of the writers to tell this tale. It was also a popular theme among artists of the time. Ancient writers treated Troilus as the epitome of a dead child mourned by his parents.
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